Advice 1: How to determine the encoding of text file

The encoding of the text in digital documents is called the method of mapping sequences of bytes to characters in the language. There are many different encodings for different languages. To determine the encoding of text file is possible using several software tools.
How to determine the encoding of text file
You will need
  • - Microsoft Office Word;
  • - KWrite;
  • - Mozilla Firefox;
  • - enca.
Use the editor of Microsoft Office Word if it is installed on the computer to determine the encoding of a text file. To run this application. In the main menu, click "File" and "Open..." or press Ctrl+O. In the open dialog navigate to the desired directory and select the file. Click "Open". If the text encoding is different from CP1251, will automatically open the dialog "Convert file". Activate it in the option "Other" and choose the encoding using the list on the right. When you select the correct encoding in the "Sample" field will be displayed readable text.
Apply text editors, allowing for the encoding of the source text. A good example of such an application is KWrite (running KDE on UNIX-like systems). Load the text file into the editor. Then just iterate over the encodings until you see readable text (in KWrite is used for this section of the Encoding Tools menu).
Similarly a text editor to determine the file encoding you can use the browser. Use Mozilla Firefox. To run this application. If it is not installed, download the appropriate distribution from the site and install it. Open a browser to the text file. To do this, select in the main menu "File" and "Open file..." or press Ctrl+O. If the loaded text is displayed correctly, expand the "Encoding" of menu "View" and find out the encoding from the name of the item that has the mark. Otherwise choose this option by selecting the various items in the same menu, as well as his section "More".
Apply specialized tools to determine the encodings of text files. In UNIX-like systems you can use enca. If necessary install this software using package managers. Print the list of available languages by running the command:

enca --list languages

Determine encoding of a text file, specifying its name with the option -g and the language of the document using the option-L. for Example:

enca -L russian -g /home/vic/tmp/aaa.txt.

Advice 2: How to determine text encoding

Probably everyone at least once faced with such a problem like wrong encoding some text. To e-mail a letter arrives with "unreadable" characters instead of normal Russian letters or you transmit the text document and to read it is not possible, because it is filled with incomprehensible scribbles". All these cases are examples wrong a particular encoding, that is, the sender used the same encoding when creating the message or document, and you try to open the text in another.
How to determine text encoding
You will need
  • A computer running the operating system, Internet access, a text editor (e.g. AkelPad)
To determine the encoding of the text you can use in several ways. One of them is a special online services are, by definition, encoded in the Internet. For example, go to the website the special field paste the "unreadable" text and click "Decode".
Try to detect the encoding automatically by using a text editor. The fact is that many text editors (e.g. AkelPad) can automatically recognize the encoding of the "unreadable" text. To do this, click the top menu "Encoding" - "set the encoding" or press ALT+F5 (in a text editor AkelPad).
You can still try to detect the encoding manually. To do this in a text editor, select the menu item "Encoding", then "Open as ...". Most often it will be ANSI, UTF-8, KOI-R. Try to choose a few.
To problems with encoding again, configure e-mail client, ICQ client and browser with the correct encoding. To do this, go to settings, select "Encoding" and write back in Latin letters win1251.

Advice 3: How to determine the path to the file

To run programs much easier by using shortcuts. It denies the need to open the hard drive, then a folder and then run the program. The same situation with folders. It is easier to create a shortcut to it and open a second double click of the mouse. But sometimes you need to know the path to the file, which is attached to this label. For example, if you move the original folder to another location.
How to determine the path to the file
You will need
  • - Computer with Windows.
To determine the path to the file, click on the icon for which you want to install it, right-click. After that, there is a context menu, it is necessary to select the command "Properties". Next, a window will appear in which click on the tab "Shortcut".
In the ensuing window there are several options. The parameter "working directory" specifies the folder name where the file is referenced by the label, and the "Object" parameter is the full path to it. First in line "Object" indicates the hard disk partition, and then directly to the folder in which it lies. The bottom window is the option "file Location". If you click on it with the left mouse button will open a window with the folder where the file is stored.
For example, if you need to find a way to file a certain process that is running in the operating system, then it can be done. Click on the keyboard Ctrl-Alt-Del, and then on the computer screen window will appear. In this window, and select "task Manager". Either press Ctrl-ShIft-Esc and it will launch immediately.
Appeared in task Manager go to the Processes tab. Select the process for which you want to know the path to the file, clicking the right button of the mouse. After that a new window will appear with information about the object. In the line "Type" is, therefore, the information about its type, and just below the line "Location". It and use a full path to the file. Also if you click on the tab "Details", you can find more information about it, such as its original name, copyright, etc. If you want you can learn about digital signatures of the object, simply go to the tab called "Digital signatures".

Advice 4: How to know the encoding of the site

On modern web pages is mostly used encoding for Unicode. But some of the resources created long ago and since then never upgraded. Besides, even when viewing a modern website browser can detect the encoding correctly.
How to know the encoding of the site
Maybe the browser was accidentally disabled auto-detection of encoding. Try to turn it on. To do this, select the menu item "View" - "Encoding" (in older versions of Opera and many other browsers), or "Page" - "Encoding" (in the new versions of Opera). Switch mode, which can be called "Automatically" or "Choose automatically". Maybe the text on the page will immediately become readable.
If the page display was not normal, find the correct encoding manually. To do this, go to the same menu item as in the previous case, but instead of the automatic mode select the coding KOI-8R - for sitex, created before the transition to Unicode, it is the most common. If it fails try the same method to choose the encoding CP1251, CP866, and if does not help and it pereproshit all the standards were from the category "Cyrillic".
Information about the encoding of the page is typically stored in its source code, and it is on the basis of these data it determines the browser. To read the source code of the page, click on the menu, depending on the browser, select "View" - "Source code" or "Page" - "development Tools" - "Source code". In the beginning of the text locate the following line:meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=encodingname" where encodingname - the name of the encoding. Then select in the browser menu this encoding.
Standard browser tools powerless, if you use a less common encoding, or the text was subjected to multiple transcoding. To decrypt it, go to online decoder, for example, Place a piece of text from the page in the input box and click "Decrypt". To do this, select the text with the mouse, press Ctrl+C click in the input box and hit Ctrl+V. In the case of success together with the decrypted text you will receive information about what encoding it was.

Advice 5: Than you can open a tmp file

Extension .tmp is a temporary file that can also take extension .temp. All temporary files have the same extension, but can be created in different programs. In this regard, it is often difficult to understand what program created the file and where did this file on your hard disk.
Than you can open a tmp file
In some cases, the part of the file name with the extension .tmp makes it clear to users what program the file was created. For example, a file with the name 2014_annual_report.tmp is a document of MS Office. In addition, the file belonging to this or that program can be identified by its location. For example, if the file is in the temporary folder Temp located in the main application folder, then most likely the file was created by this program.

Why programs create files with the file extension .tmp

Temporary files are created in the first place for the purpose of backup or temporary storage of documents. Many programs create backup files every few minutes, when the user uses the application files. In this case, the sudden program crashing or shutting down the computer, the user will be able to restore a file from a program created temporary file. Files .tmp are usually deleted by the program automatically when it closes.

However, due to failures of programs, some files which should be automatically deleted, may remain on the hard disk of the computer. They can constantly accumulate, so that the user won't even notice it.

Finally, web browsers create temporary files to store user data like cookies and browsing history.

Deleting files with the extension .tmp manually

Before you delete the temporary files manually, you must make sure that these files really are temporary and they will not be necessary to operate the program in the future. If you are sure that these files are no longer useful, it is better first to put them in the basket, and already after some time delete them from there.

Automatic deletion of files with the extension .tmp

It is periodically necessary to make mass delete temporary files using special programs that automate this process. So, Windows 7 has a built-in application cleanmgr.exe-weapon and other powerful capabilities. In order to use this utility, go to "disk Properties", clicking in the folder, right-click and selecting the relevant section.

Next on the General tab click "disk Cleanup". Then in the opened window, you select the two icons with the words "Temporary Internet files and Downloaded program files, and then click OK. Next, the system will delete all the unwanted files.

How to open file .tmp

The easiest way to open a file .tmp - double-clicking on it with the left mouse button. In this case, Windows will automatically select the correct program to open the file.

To determine which application can open .tmp, you can use special online services, for example, that allows free to perform a file belonging to a particular application.

If none of the programs installed in Windows are not associated with such a file, the operating system will prompt you to select the required application from the list to open the file manually. If none of the proposed Windows programs not suitable with the content of the file can be found in a graphics editor such as Notepad.

Advice 6: What are the methods of coding from alcoholism

In the modern world, alcoholism is one of the bad habits of the person. It is a disease that should be treated, mainly because it affects young men and women who are expecting should be only healthy life.
What are the methods of coding from alcoholism

The process of coding from alcoholism

When encoding from alcoholism the body is injected a special drug that puts the person into a hypnotic sleep. During that time, as long as this poison acts on the body, a psychiatrist causes pain in a patient, pressing on the eyeballs or the solar plexus. At this time, in the subconscious of the patient to develop a sense of fear. As a rule, during the procedure, the psychiatrist pronounces phrases that frighten the person. He can say that during the taking of alcohol from the body can stop working, possible cardiac arrest or a painful, long death, and more. During the action of the poison, the human psyche is very receptive, so this encoding is almost always helps.

It usually takes place in special treatment rooms, where guests can hear the sound of passing vehicles, people's voices, their conversations. After the poison expires, the patient bring to consciousness, he forgets everything that happened to him during hypnosis. Information hidden deep in the subconscious of the patient.

The types of coding from alcoholism

Coding from alcoholism is the last and final step in the treatment of pathological dependence.

There are several methods of coding from alcoholism. This implantation of various drugs, for example, Suspensio Esperle depo, and medical coding drugs NIT, SIT, and MST, and sewing, "torpedo", and programming of different methods.

For patients suffering from alcoholism, the most effective way is the method of Dovzhenko. This procedure of hypnosis, which helps the body to cope with harmful addiction with a therapist and psychiatrist.

Sewing is an introduction to the patient an anti-alcohol drugs, as a rule, imported. This drug is often injected under the scapula or in the buttock. After the injection does not leave any scars or scratches. This has a lasting effect on the human body, because his blood is constantly maintained level of substance and rejects alcoholic drinks.

"Torpedo" - the method by which it is shot. Not everyone can do this procedure, you must fully examined. In the patient administered the substance, which may not be compatible with alcohol. For some time the patient must be under the supervision of a physician. If the patient drinks alcohol, the body rejects the alcohol, disturbed mood.

Double block – encoding, which combines the method of Dovzhenko, and the introduction of drugs under the human skin.
Intravenous administration of such drugs as: MST, SIT and NIT occurs with provocation, that is, a person immediately after the introduction of drugs were allowed to drink some alcohol. He feels bad and realizes that to drink more can not, because it is possible not only to poor health, and even cardiac arrest.
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