To find the metaphor in the text, read it carefully and determine what style it belongs to. Scientific and officially-business do not involve the use of artistic paths. In a journalistic – metaphors are widely used and are based on different analogies: sports (get the knockout); theatrical (being a puppet); hunting (inducing a false trail); games (to keep the cards). In journalism language tools are designed to influence readers for the promotion of certain socio-political ideas.
In literary text metaphors that appeal to the imagination and are used for a particular expression and brightness of language. In addition, they help to better understand the essence of the things described.
The metaphor is also called a hidden comparison. Unlike ordinary or simple binomial, comparing who has what is compared and what is compared to a metaphor has only the second. Therefore, the phenomenon about which goes speech, it is not known, but only implied.
In the poem of V. V. Mayakovsky, "a Conversation with the financial officer about poetry" is very clearly visible transition from comparison to metaphor. Therefore, their differences Mayakovsky particularly evident:Poetry is the same – the extraction of radium, In grams production per year works. Harass a single word for the sake of Thousands of tons of verbal ore. Here's a comparison of poetry with the production of radium is the direct, which gives way to the metaphor: "thousands of tons of verbal ore".
Often in poetic works meet such expressions as "dreams of gold", "iron verse", "morning gray", "misty youth". Here are only metaphorical definitions, which simultaneously perform two functions: epithet and metaphor. They are called metaphorical epithets.
A special type of metaphor is personification – when the signs of a living being are transferred to the nature, objects and concepts. For example, "from the mountains ran streams" - N.. Nekrasov.
Metaphors are used in expressive and emotional lyrics. It is often found in idioms, sayings, aphorisms, nicknames. For example, "alien soul – darkness", "the eye", "man – wolf".
Find in the text a metaphor, try to rephrase the sentence by replacing the expression with a direct meaning. If you succeed to do so – before you metaphor.
Over time, some metaphors no longer be viewed special expressive means and become a regular linguistic unit. They are called "erased metaphors". For example, "table leg", "chair".