A greenhouse is the structure with the artificial climate inside, suitable for growing plants. To normally grow and develop, they need a certain soil composition, heat, light, moisture. All of these conditions are provided in the open ground only during the brief summer. To grow plants in the spring, autumn or even winter, you need to create an artificial climate. For this and serve greenhouses
The design of the greenhouses is different – arched, gable, keystone. The most widely arched design as the most technologically advanced and economical in use of materials. Frame construction the frame of the greenhouse is covered with a translucent material such as glass, plastic film, cell polycarbonate. The latter have become most popular due to its lightness, strength, high teploizoljacionnojj.
The main purpose of greenhouses is to create within it optimal for plant temperature. For this purpose, various heating devices – battery hot water heating, heat guns, heaters, etc. Greenhouses may not have heating equipment, being used as a conventional greenhouses. Increased in comparison with the outside air temperature in this case is the greenhouse effect created by the translucent material.
Greenhouses can be used for growing early seedlings, which with the onset of warm time are transplanted into open ground, and for the cultivation of plants remaining in the greenhouse for the entire period of vegetation – often, tomatoes.
Technology of the greenhouse cultivation does not differ fundamentally from the technology used in the open field. Plants are planted in the form of seeds or seedlings in the ground or pots, watered, fed, propisyvayutsya, if necessary phasingout and tie, etc. However, there are some differences in the cultivation of plants in protected and unprotected soil.
The main difference is necessary to maintain the desired temperature, which can fluctuate considerably depending on the kind of crops grown. For most plants the optimum daytime temperature is in the range of 23-25°C, night 15-18°C. the Temperature is controlled manually or automatically via control equipment.
Because greenhouse grown plants at a time when solar activity is limited, often there is a necessity for artificial lighting of plants. As lighting devices are used are usually gas discharge lamp.
The enclosed space of greenhouses creates high humidity, which affects many plants. To reduce it, the greenhouse should be ventilated using natural or forced ventilation.
Close attention to watering of plants. Earth in the greenhouse is not getting moisture in a natural way in the form of rain, so it should be regularly watered. This requires careful monitoring of humidity of the earth, waterlogging dangerous diseases.
Since the soil of the greenhouse accumulates bacteria, it from time to time – once in 2-3 years – must be replaced by fresh. To do this, remove the layer of soil thickness of 10-15 cm and taken out, but instead deliver fresh soil.