Advice 1: How to navigate by the North star

For outdoor enthusiasts can not do without the skills of orienteering. In the absence of a map and compass invaluable help can bring knowledge of the way of orientation to the North star.
How to navigate by the North star
Instruction
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Please note that the correct orientation of the terrain means the precise determination of the directions of cardinal points and their location. Usually you have to first find the direction to the North and South. Having a map or compass, make it easy. But in the absence of these funds the best way is to steer by the Polar star.
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Look at her bright light - the most ancient astronomical landmark. Located as close to the North pole, it points North with a small error in orientation can be neglected. North star present in the sky always, regardless of time of day and year. It can be seen anywhere in the Northern hemisphere. Interestingly, the radiation of the Polar star has a strong positive impact on the planet. Approximately 2102 year it will be directly over the axis of the Earth.
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To find Polaris, look for either the constellation URSA Minor, or Great bear constellation. They are next, and consequently vary in size. The North star is the last and brightest star of the little bear's tail. But often in the sky define a large bucket of seven fairly bright stars, and then, highlighting the vision two rightmost stars of the dipper, mentally hold the line about five times longer directly to the North star. Looking at her, you will move exactly in the Northern direction. Behind you will be South, right is East and the left West.
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Note that this method of orienteering is not universal. Don't use being in high Northern latitudes, as the polar star is very high; and in the southern hemisphere, the tropics is a spring constellation.
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Consider the seasonal changes of the position of the Big dipper relative to the horizon during the year, and during the day. In autumn, being in the middle lane, to locate the North star it is better to use the constellation Cassiopeia. It is removed from the North star about the same distance as the Big dipper. Consisting of five bright stars of the constellation resembles a sweeping letter "M" in temperate latitudes. If you mentally hold a perpendicular line from the middle bottom of the star towards the middle of the letter "M", you'll see the North star.

Advice 2: How to navigate without a compass

Going on a trip, it is necessary to have a compass. It will help to Orient and determine sides of the world. But what if the compass is missing or is out of order? There are other methods of determining the location in space.
How to navigate without a compass
Instruction
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To understand which side light is possible with a conventional wrist watch. Rotate them in the horizontal plane and watch the dial. The hour hand should be directed towards the Sun. The South is in that direction, where is the line obtained by the bisection of the angle between the hour hand and mark 14 hours. When you find the South stand up to face him. Behind you will be North, left is East, right is West. In the southern latitudes this method can not be used. It works well in the North and bad – in moderate. But in the summer of error can be up to 25°.
How to navigate without <strong>compass</strong>
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To navigate by the Sun and no clocks, you just need to know when and where it rises and sets. As you know, in winter the Sun rises South East and sets in the southwest. As for the summer, this time of year the moon rises in the North-East and sets in the Northwest. With spring and autumn is easier in spring and autumn the Sun rises in the East and sets in the West. If you take the middle lane, then around 8 am the Sun summer is in the East, about 11 hours in the South - East, about 14 hours in the South, about 17 hours in the South - West, about 20 hours - in the West, about 23 hours in the North - West.
How to navigate without <strong>compass</strong>
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You can navigate and night – on the Polar star. It is located near the constellation URSA major. Define the first, where the sky shines the bucket, then mentally draw up the line through the two extreme points. On this line, count to five times the distance equal to the distance between these two stars. At the end of the line will be the North star. It's going to start the handle of the little dipper. If the Polar star to face ahead in the North.
How to navigate without <strong>compass</strong>
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