Please note that the correct orientation of the terrain means the precise determination of the directions of cardinal points and their location. Usually you have to first find the direction to the North and South. Having a map or compass, make it easy. But in the absence of these funds the best way is to steer by the Polar star.
Look at her bright light - the most ancient astronomical landmark. Located as close to the North pole, it points North with a small error in orientation can be neglected. North star present in the sky always, regardless of time of day and year. It can be seen anywhere in the Northern hemisphere. Interestingly, the radiation of the Polar star has a strong positive impact on the planet. Approximately 2102 year it will be directly over the axis of the Earth.
To find Polaris, look for either the constellation URSA Minor, or Great bear constellation. They are next, and consequently vary in size. The North star is the last and brightest star of the little bear's tail. But often in the sky define a large bucket of seven fairly bright stars, and then, highlighting the vision two rightmost stars of the dipper, mentally hold the line about five times longer directly to the North star. Looking at her, you will move exactly in the Northern direction. Behind you will be South, right is East and the left West.
Note that this method of orienteering is not universal. Don't use being in high Northern latitudes, as the polar star is very high; and in the southern hemisphere, the tropics is a spring constellation.
Consider the seasonal changes of the position of the Big dipper relative to the horizon during the year, and during the day. In autumn, being in the middle lane, to locate the North star it is better to use the constellation Cassiopeia. It is removed from the North star about the same distance as the Big dipper. Consisting of five bright stars of the constellation resembles a sweeping letter "M" in temperate latitudes. If you mentally hold a perpendicular line from the middle bottom of the star towards the middle of the letter "M", you'll see the North star.
Advice 2: How to navigate without a compass
Going on a trip, it is necessary to have a compass. It will help to Orient and determine sides of the world. But what if the compass is missing or is out of order? There are other methods of determining the location in space.
To understand which side light is possible with a conventional wrist watch. Rotate them in the horizontal plane and watch the dial. The hour hand should be directed towards the Sun. The South is in that direction, where is the line obtained by the bisection of the angle between the hour hand and mark 14 hours. When you find the South stand up to face him. Behind you will be North, left is East, right is West. In the southern latitudes this method can not be used. It works well in the North and bad – in moderate. But in the summer of error can be up to 25°.
To navigate by the Sun and no clocks, you just need to know when and where it rises and sets. As you know, in winter the Sun rises South East and sets in the southwest. As for the summer, this time of year the moon rises in the North-East and sets in the Northwest. With spring and autumn is easier in spring and autumn the Sun rises in the East and sets in the West. If you take the middle lane, then around 8 am the Sun summer is in the East, about 11 hours in the South - East, about 14 hours in the South, about 17 hours in the South - West, about 20 hours - in the West, about 23 hours in the North - West.
You can navigate and night – on the Polar star. It is located near the constellation URSA major. Define the first, where the sky shines the bucket, then mentally draw up the line through the two extreme points. On this line, count to five times the distance equal to the distance between these two stars. At the end of the line will be the North star. It's going to start the handle of the little dipper. If the Polar star to face ahead in the North.
Advice 3: How to identify the North star
North star is located above the North point of the horizon in the Northern hemisphere. This allows you to use it to define the sides of the horizon. If you find yourself in unfamiliar territory without a compass, the ability to find the Polar star will help you to properly navigate the terrain.
In a cloudless clear night look at the sky and try to find the bright constellation that looks like a big dipper. This typical configuration of seven bright stars known as the constellation URSA major. Four stars make up the "handle" of the dipper, and another three for its location reminiscent of the bucket, which is a parallelogram. Most of the stars that make up the bucket, have the brilliance of the second magnitude, and only one (Megrez) is the third.
Mentally select two stars of the parallelogram, located on the side opposite the "handle" of the bucket. The stars Dubhe and Merak (respectively "alpha" and "beta" of the constellation of the Great bear); they form the wall of the bucket and has long been called "Pointers". Swipe through them up a slightly curved line.
On mental line through Merak and Dubhe, put five times the cut is equal to the distance between the two stars. The end of such cut will be approximately at the location of the Polar star.
In order to verify the correctness of the finding of the Polar star, you should know that it is the endpoint of the handle of the small dipper constellation the little dipper. North star practically does not change its location in the sky, that is fixed in the daily rotation of the Earth. The rest of the stars forming the little dipper, rotate around this point.
Finding the Polar star, you can not only find out where North is, but rather accurately set the geographic latitude, in which there are. To do this, take a protractor and a plumb line (string with weight), which fasten in the centre of the protractor.
Now move the base of the protractor on the Polar star. From the angle between the base of the device and a plumb subtract 90 degrees. The result will be equal to the angle between the star and the horizon. Since the polar star is just one degree inclined from the axis of the pole of the world, then you found the angle between the star and the horizon will be the latitude of the area.
Interesting fact: the North star is a supergiant. Its distance to Earth is approximately 472 light-years. Much time is required light beam to pass the distance. So today we see the North star as it was in the days of Christopher Columbus.
Advice 4: How to navigate by compass
With the onset of summer season, many citizens seek to get out into nature. Hiking, picking berries and mushrooms sometimes turn into a fascinating journey. It is always necessary to remember that in an unfamiliar area and getting lost for long. Therefore, going into the woods, take a compass and a map. The ability to navigate by compass is a useful skill for any camper.
You will need
- - compass;
- - map of the area;
- - transparent ruler
Read the compass device. He usually has a circular scale, divided into 120 divisions, each of which represents a step of 3 degrees. The limbs of some compasses are marked angular degrees from 0 to 359 and refer to the main compass points pointing to the North (N), South (S), West (W) and East (E). In the center of the compass is the arrow always oriented in the direction of "North-South".
When purchasing a compass, check the magnetization of the arrow. To do this, bring the arrow to a massive iron object. Make sure that the needle in his direction. Want to buy compass, the interior of which is filled with fluid, which prevents oscillations. So you can use the device even on the go.
Place the compass on a flat horizontal surface. Turn off the brake, the locking position of the arrow. Wait until the arrow will cease to oscillate and will settle down.
Carefully rotate the compass to align the North end of the arrow with the letter N on the scale of the instrument. You have just oriented the compass to the horizon. Make no mistake in determining the North and South. Part of the needle that points North, can be blue or different in form from the "South" end. Sometimes the "North" part of the needle is of a luminous point. To be sure, read the instructions for the device.
Carry out so-called binding to the terrain. Select the reference, i.e. the object to which you return after the completion of the movement on the ground. Select line feature: road clearing, power line, river, and so on. This will allow you not to miss when you return to the starting point.
Select the direction of movement from the starting point. Make a note of the angular value corresponding to that direction by looking at the compass. For example, you decided that going from a point standing on the North-East. This means that you will have back in the opposite direction, i.e. in the South-West.
If the anticipated path of movement has the character of a broken line, count while walking the number of pairs of steps, and in places turns again check with the compass by determining a new course in degrees. Try to allocate the route visible landmarks: towers, poles, power lines, tall trees, etc.
If you have a map of the area, mark your route in the direction of motion by placing control points. This will allow the return to go astray and just to get to the starting point.