You will need

- - knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem, theorem of cosines;
- - trigonometric identities;
- calculator or tables Bradis.

Instruction

1

With cosine, you can find any of the sides of a right triangle. To do this, use the mathematical relationship that States that the cosine of an acute angle triangle is the ratio of adjacent sides to the hypotenuse. Therefore, knowing the acute angle of a right triangle, find the side of it.

2

For example, the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 5 cm and the acute angle 60º with her. Locate adjacent to the acute corner side. To do this, use the definition of cosine cos(α)= b/a, where a is the hypotenuse of a right triangle, b is the side adjacent to the angle α. Then its length will be equal to b=a∙cos(α). Substitute values b=5∙cos(60º)= 5∙0,5=2,5 cm

3

The third side C, which is the second leg find using the Pythagorean theorem c=√(52-2,52)≈4.33 cm

4

Using the spherical law of cosines, you can find sides of triangles if you know two sides and the angle between them. To find the third side, find the sum of the squares of the two known sides, subtract from it twice the product multiplied by the cosine of the angle between them. From the result, extract the square root.

5

Example In triangle two sides are equal a=12 cm, b=9 cm Angle between them is 45º. Find the third side c. To find the third side use the cosine theorem c=√(a2+b2-a∙b∙cos(α)). Performing a lookup will get c=√(122+92-12∙9∙cos(45º))≈12,2 cm

6

When solving problems with

**cosines**, use of identity, allowing to pass away from this trigonometric function to another, and Vice versa. The basic trigonometric identity: cos2(α)+sin2(α)=1; the ratio of tangent and cotangent: tg(α)=sin(α)/cos(α), ctg(α)=cos(α)/sin(α), etc. To find the value of the cosines of the angles use a special calculator or table Bradis.# Advice 2: How to find the cosine in the triangle

Often the geometric (trigonometric) tasks required to find

**the cosine**of the angle in**the triangle**, because**the cosine**of the angle allows to determine the value of the angle.Instruction

1

To find

and?=b?+c?-2*b*c*cos?, where:

a, b, C be the sidelengths of a triangle (or rather their lengths),

? – the angle opposite the side a (its value).

From these equalities easily is cos?:

cos?=( b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)

Example 1.

There is a triangle with sides a, b, C equal 3, 4, 5 mm respectively.

Find

Solution:

According to the problem conditions we have:

a=3,

b=4,

C=5.

We denote the opposite side and the angle across the? then, according to the formula derived above, we have:

cos?=(b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)=(4?+5?-3?)/(2*4*5)=(16+25-9)/40=32/40=0,8

The answer of 0.8.

**the cosine**of an angle in**a triangle**, the lengths of the sides are known, we can use the theorem**of the cosine of**s. According to this theorem, the squared length of an arbitrary side of a triangle equals the sum of the squares of its two other sides without twice the product of the lengths of these sides into**the cosine**of the angle between them:and?=b?+c?-2*b*c*cos?, where:

a, b, C be the sidelengths of a triangle (or rather their lengths),

? – the angle opposite the side a (its value).

From these equalities easily is cos?:

cos?=( b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)

Example 1.

There is a triangle with sides a, b, C equal 3, 4, 5 mm respectively.

Find

**the cosine**of the angle between the long sides.Solution:

According to the problem conditions we have:

a=3,

b=4,

C=5.

We denote the opposite side and the angle across the? then, according to the formula derived above, we have:

cos?=(b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)=(4?+5?-3?)/(2*4*5)=(16+25-9)/40=32/40=0,8

The answer of 0.8.

2

If the triangle is rectangular, then to find

Suppose you have a rectangular triangle with sides a, b, C, where C is the hypotenuse.

Consider all the options:

Example 2.

Find cos?, if you know the lengths of the sides a and b (sides of triangle)

We use advanced Pythagorean theorem:

c?=b?+huh?,

C=v(b?+huh?)

cos?=(b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)=(b?+b?+huh?-huh?)/(2*b*v(b?+a?))=(2*b?)/(2*b*v(b?+a?))=b/v(b?+huh?)

To check the correctness of the formula, substitute in the values from example 1, i.e.

a=3,

b=4.

Doing elementary calculations, we get:

cos?=0,8.

**the cosine of**a angle is enough to know only the lengths of any two sides of (**the cosine**of a right angle is equal to 0).Suppose you have a rectangular triangle with sides a, b, C, where C is the hypotenuse.

Consider all the options:

Example 2.

Find cos?, if you know the lengths of the sides a and b (sides of triangle)

We use advanced Pythagorean theorem:

c?=b?+huh?,

C=v(b?+huh?)

cos?=(b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)=(b?+b?+huh?-huh?)/(2*b*v(b?+a?))=(2*b?)/(2*b*v(b?+a?))=b/v(b?+huh?)

To check the correctness of the formula, substitute in the values from example 1, i.e.

a=3,

b=4.

Doing elementary calculations, we get:

cos?=0,8.

3

Similarly, is

Example 3.

Known a and C (hypotenuse and opposite side), find cos?

b?=with?-huh?,

b=v(c?-huh?)

cos?=(b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)=(C?-a?+with?-huh?)/(2*s*v (? -a?))=(2*s?-2*a?)/(2*s*v (? -a?))=v (? -huh?)/C.

Substituting the values a=3 and C=5 from the first example, we get:

cos?=0,8.

**the cosine of**the rectangular**triangle**in other cases:Example 3.

Known a and C (hypotenuse and opposite side), find cos?

b?=with?-huh?,

b=v(c?-huh?)

cos?=(b?+c?-huh? )/(2*b*c)=(C?-a?+with?-huh?)/(2*s*v (? -a?))=(2*s?-2*a?)/(2*s*v (? -a?))=v (? -huh?)/C.

Substituting the values a=3 and C=5 from the first example, we get:

cos?=0,8.

4

Example 4.

Famous b and C (the hypotenuse and adjacent side).

Find cos?

Producing the same (shown in examples 2 and 3 of the transition), we obtain that in this case

cos?=b/C.

The simplicity of obtained formula is explained simple: in fact, adjacent to the corner ? side is the projection of the hypotenuse, so its length is equal to the length of the hypotenuse multiplied by cos?.

Substituting the values b=4 and C=5 from the first example, will get:

cos?=0,8

So all our formulas are correct.

Famous b and C (the hypotenuse and adjacent side).

Find cos?

Producing the same (shown in examples 2 and 3 of the transition), we obtain that in this case

**the cosine**in**the triangle**is calculated by a simple formula:cos?=b/C.

The simplicity of obtained formula is explained simple: in fact, adjacent to the corner ? side is the projection of the hypotenuse, so its length is equal to the length of the hypotenuse multiplied by cos?.

Substituting the values b=4 and C=5 from the first example, will get:

cos?=0,8

So all our formulas are correct.

# Advice 3: How to solve the task from the exam in algebra

Unified State Examination is centrally conducted in the Russian Federation exam in secondary schools (the schools). 2011 exam paper in mathematics contains 12 items (B1-B12), and 6 more advanced tasks (S1-S6). Unified State Exam in algebra need to pass, as it is mandatory for all graduates.

You will need

- Leaf, pen, ruler.

Instruction

1

Consider the task (B1). Example: Ballpoint pen costs 40 RUB. What is the largest number of such pens can be bought for 300 rubles after the increase in the price of pen is 10 %? For a start, find out how much cost is ball point pen after the price increase. For 40 divide by 100, multiply by 10 and add 40. New price handles - 44 RUB And now 300 divide by 44. Answer: 6.

Reference (B2). This job you can easily decide on a schedule, just be very careful.

Job (B3). Example: Find the root of the equation 7 to the extent of (u - 2) is equal to 49. First, imagine 49 as 7 in the second degree. Now you have the equation: y - 2 = 2. Deciding it, you will get the answer: 4.

Reference (B2). This job you can easily decide on a schedule, just be very careful.

Job (B3). Example: Find the root of the equation 7 to the extent of (u - 2) is equal to 49. First, imagine 49 as 7 in the second degree. Now you have the equation: y - 2 = 2. Deciding it, you will get the answer: 4.

2

The Job (Q4). Example: In triangle ABC, the angle is 90 degrees, angle A is 30 degrees, AB = the square root of 3. Find the ACE.. Draw on a piece of this triangle, so it will be easier to present it. So, the cosine of angle A = AC/AB. Here you can Express as: AC = the cosine of A multiplied by AB. The cosine of 30 degrees = square root of 3/2. Response: 1,5.

Job (B5). This task you can easily decide, just be careful and read correctly.

Job (B5). This task you can easily decide, just be careful and read correctly.

3

Job (B6). To solve this problem, you will need to remember formulas, areas, volumes of various shapes. If you know them, you will get the correct answer.

Job (V7). This is an example with logarithms. To solve it, remember all the properties of logarithms.

Job (V7). This is an example with logarithms. To solve it, remember all the properties of logarithms.

4

Reference (B8). This task will resolve it with graphics.

Reference (B9). Share this job to you, as in the reference (B6), you will need the formulae of areas and volumes.

Reference (B9). Share this job to you, as in the reference (B6), you will need the formulae of areas and volumes.

5

Reference (B10). Example: the Height at which is located a stone thrown from the ground vertically upward, changing the law h(t) = 2 + 14t - 5 t squared (meters). How many seconds the stone will have a height of 10 meters?. Write down the equation: 2 + 14t - 5t squared = 10. And decide it. You get roots: 2 and 0.8. 2 - 0,8 = 1,2. Answer: 1,2.

Job (Q11). Find the greatest or least value of a function on an interval. First, find the derivative of this function, equate it to zero, find the roots, check that they belong to segment and substitute them in the function itself. So you will find the value of the function.

Job (B12). Here can be a challenge to work together, movement, concentration. Learn to solve such problems.

Job (Q11). Find the greatest or least value of a function on an interval. First, find the derivative of this function, equate it to zero, find the roots, check that they belong to segment and substitute them in the function itself. So you will find the value of the function.

Job (B12). Here can be a challenge to work together, movement, concentration. Learn to solve such problems.

6

Part of the problem With more complex. To learn how to solve them, you need to go to the tutor or to resolve them in collaboration with your teacher in algebra.

Useful advice

When solving examination papers be very careful. If you can not get any job, move on to the next. If time remains, return to outstanding assignments. And then you will succeed.