Abstraction is a process based on the derivation of some properties of the subject in the course of knowledge in order to deeply investigate it a certain direction. Examples of the results of abstraction can result in curvature, color, beauty, and so on. Abstraction has several goals. For example, it aims to find commonalities. Thus their attention will have the features that distinguish one object from another. Attention will be focused only on the common ground that exists between these items. Another objective is the systematization and generalization. As you can see, this differs from the previous target, as the focus is on the differences that can segregate the items into groups. In addition, abstraction can be targeted at the creation of the sample and the clarity of the wording.


In this case, the knowledge displayed in the iconic symbolic form, that is, they have conventional values and formulas. The use of special symbols — the required method of how the person reflects reality. Formalization is part of formal logic.

The analogy

The analogy is the conclusion about the similarity between two objects on some criterion, which is based on the identity in the characteristic features. Knowledge derived after consideration of a specific object is transferred to another, less studied, and available object. However, the analogy does not give reliable knowledge. If reasoning by analogy is true, it does not give reason to believe that the conclusion will be true.

Object modeling

The object is studied with the use of abstract models. The obtained knowledge is transferred to the studied original. The model gives a more reasonable and complete forecast, as well as to optimize the movement to the result. However, it needs to have already identified trends, historical experience and expert evaluation. The model and the original should have known similarities with regard to function and physical characteristics. This similarity will allow you to transfer information, which is obtained as a result of the model study, the original.

Mental modeling

In this case, the mental images. Besides mental simulation, there is a computer and symbolic modeling.


In this case, the objects created by certain concepts that actually don't exist, but have a type. An example is an ideal gas, balloon and so on. An ideal object can be described as an idea that is expressed in the symbolic system of science of an artificial language and is the basis of scientific theory.