Advice 1: The principle of operation of alternator

The electrical generator is a device by which mechanical energy type is converted to electric. Such devices are widely used in manufacturing and some technical systems, for example in cars. The basis of operation of the generator is the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction.
The principle of operation of alternator

The device of the alternator



In practice using several types of generators. But each of them includes the same constituent elements. These include the magnet, which creates the appropriate field, and special wire winding, where the generated electromotive force (EMF). In the simplest model of the generator performs the role of the winding frame, can be rotated around a horizontal or vertical axis. The amplitude of EMF is proportional to the number of turns in the coil, and the amplitude of oscillations of the magnetic flux.

To obtain a significant strength of the magnetic flux in the generators use a special system. It consists of a pair of steel cores. Winding, which creates an alternating magnetic field, is placed in the grooves of the first of them. Those coils which induce EMF, placed in the grooves of the second core.

The inner core is called a rotor. It rotates around the axis together with its winding. The core, which remains without movement, performs the function of the stator. To make the magnetic flux is strongest, and the loss of energy is minimal, the distance between the stator and the rotor are trying to do as little as possible.

On what principle does a generator



Electromotive force occurs in the stator windings once the electric field, which is characterized by vortex formation. These processes are generated by the change of the magnetic flux, which is observed during accelerated rotation of the rotor.

Current from the rotor is fed into the circuit by means of contacts, having the form of sliding elements. To make it easier to ends of the coil attach the rings called contact. The rings are pressed against the stationary brushes, through which the connection between the electric circuit and the windings of the moving rotor.

In the coils of the winding of the magnet, where the magnetic field is created, the current has a relatively small force when compared with the current which the generator gives to the external circuit. For this reason, the designers of the first generators has decided to withdraw current from the windings located statically, and the weak current to the rotary magnet to apply via your contacts, providing the sliding. In generators of low power field generates the permanent magnet-type, which is able to rotate. This design allows the simplification of the system and does not use rings and brushes.

Modern industrial generator of electric current is a massive and bulky structure, which consists of metal structures, insulators and copper wires. The size of the device can be several meters. But even with such a solid structure is very important to maintain the exact dimensions of the parts and the clearances between moving parts of electrical machines.

Advice 2 : How to generate electricity

Electricity is a miracle of nature and technology today without electricity is not possible no production, the presence of current in the outlet depends comfortable stay of man in his own home. Currently, scientists are working on the question of how to obtain an electric current from the surrounding environment. It turns out there are a lot of ways.
How to generate electricity
Instruction
1
To energy from waste plants. A microbiologist from Britain Mccaskey Lynn made the bacteria to generate electricity from waste chocolate factory. Mccaskey used the bacteria Escherichia coli. They split the sugar from solutions of caramel, nougat and got hydrogen. The hydrogen is sent to a special fuel cell, where electricity was produced.
2
To produce electricity from wastewater. It is proved by scientists from the University of Pennsylvania. They used the bacteria that eat organic matter, while expelling carbon dioxide. Creates a chemical reaction that can power light bulbs.
3
Energy from the sun and stars is also possible to obtain an electric current. Nuclear scientists from Russia created a battery that is not dependent on weather conditions transformerait energy of the sun and stars into electricity. His invention of scientists from the Institute in Dubna near Moscow, called the "Star battery". It's more efficient than solar.
4
To the electrical current even from the air, using its natural vibration to it. But while on this technology, scientists are still working.
5
To get electricity you can from running water. On this issue of work by canadian scientists. They created an electrokinetic battery. The battery is a glass vessel, riddled with hundreds of thousands of microscopic channels. Water flowing through the channels formed at one end of the vessel positive and negative on the other end.
In the result generates electric current.
6
To obtain electrical current from the vibrations of passing trucks, trains and even pedestrians. "The pulse of the city" can be used as a source of electricity, which would be enough for street lighting. On this theory the scientists are working in London.
7
American scientists claim that soon even the trees will give us electricity.
If you stick an aluminum rod in the trunk of a living tree, to make a brass tube and put it at 17 cm in the ground, the voltmeter will show that between the stem in the bark of a tree and buried the tube has a weak DC current that can be accumulated in special batteries.
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