Types of foundations
There are 3 main types of foundations: pile, filler (ribbon) and block. The first is quite expensive. At the perimeter of the house under the future bearing walls in the ground is driven a few piles. They penetrate the soil deeply pass through the moving layer of clay and rely on a stable layer.
Almost the same effect gives recessed strip Foundation. Depending on the weight of the structure, type of soil, level of groundwater, it is made to a depth of from 60 to 200 cm If the water table is deep and is built of mild house made of wood (not brick), it is possible to construct low-depth continuous footing.
Small blocks usually do a pier Foundation. He was cleared on sandy soils, where there is no or a small layer of rolling clay soil.
A bar or strip Foundation?
The construction of strip Foundation is more labor intensive than the columnar device. Requires more material, physical costs.
To make the filling Foundation, you first need to dig a trench. Its depth should be below the level of soil freezing. If groundwater is located high, you must first make drainage of land by digging around the perimeter drainage ditches.
After all the preliminary work done, in a trench arranged sand-gravel cushion. It shed water and thoroughly tamped. Then arrange a frame of rebar and then pour concrete – ready or of their own making. It needs to penetrate not only deep, but also to rise above the level of the soil at 30-50 cm.
Make a monolithic shell of a building and of the Foundation blocks. For unloading and installation need crane. The blocks are also set on a sandy pillow, the joints between them sealed with cement.
Filler Foundation block better on soils with a high groundwater level. Over time, they can erode the cement seams. In aspic-a reinforcement, which helps to create a single monolithic structure.
Typically, the block system is used as the basis of the house where there is a basement. Blocks of basement being built quickly – no need to build formwork install rebar to wait a month until hardens the concrete.
In soils with low groundwater for the house with basement a better Foundation of blocks. In other cases, a preferable filler.
Under light wooden structures on sandy soils and "neproblemny" loam construct a pier Foundation made of small blocks. This design does not require large expenditures and erected very quickly.