In the educational system, specialization is systematic, targeted training students for specific future employment within any one profession. Specialization is usually done for 3-5 courses of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions and secondary vocational – during entire training course.
For example, in the Russian Department of the philological faculty at the undergraduate there are of specialization: "linguistics", "literature", "language communication" and so In art schools (say, in the Department of decorative art) – "art processing of wood", "art-metal", etc. In vocational training, for example, a degree avtodelo immediately suggests the choice of specialization: "the mechanic on car repairs", "driver of special vehicles", etc.
Currently, in many universities, in connection with the adoption of the Bologna two-tier system of education, you can choose a specialization only in master, not necessarily in the major field, unless otherwise provided by Statute or the profile of the institution.
Specialization in the organization of production is to concentrate the manufacture of products or its components in separate industries, into separate companies or divisions. In this case, specialization is necessary to increase volumes of production of homogeneous products, to increase its quality, improve productivity.
The following types of industrial specialization:

subject (enterprise specializiruetsya in the production of finished products. For example, producing cars.);
by units (manufacturing focused on the production of individual parts, units and assemblies. For example, carbureted mill.);
- phasic or process (the company is focused on execution of separate stages of technological process. For example, a spinning mill to supply material for weaving, and they, in turn, supply fabrics for garment factories);
- auxiliary production (the enterprises producing packaging materials, tools and performing repairs).
Depending on the scale of production distinguish between intra-industry, inter-industry and inter-country specialization.