Advice 1: How to calculate the energy consumption

Scientists estimate that the reserves of fossil fuels in 50 years will be completely exhausted, so now is the search for alternative sources of energy. Private homes can provide electricity through solar, wind or water. But before selecting an alternative source or buying a backup generator need to calculate how much electrical power is needed to ensure smooth operation of all current consumers, if they are included at the same time.
How to calculate the energy consumption
You will need
  • technical passports for all energy consumers;
  • calculator.
Instruction
1
The easiest way to find the power consumption – fold consumption of all electrical appliances in the house. To find these figures in the Datasheet of the device.
2
You need to consider the features of inrush currents that occur when starting the operation of the energy consuming entity. These indicators can exceed the average values stated in the passport. Consumers of electricity with inductive and active resistance, in which the energy is spent on heating – plates, irons, incandescent lamps have the same operating voltage and at the time of launch, therefore, when calculating the total power of their indicators are simply summed.
3
Objects with a condenser (capacitive) impedance, which is part of the energy is converted into heat, and the other part to generate a magnetic field, may when you start to consume much more energy than in a normal working condition. Therefore, before calculating the total consumption, you must measure each object to multiply by 2.5-3 to avoid overloading the system.
4
Use to calculate the energy consumed by the following formula:

PE = 1,1* (K1 * НМЭ1 * пуск1+ K2 * НМЭ2 * пуск2+ ...), where PE is the total power of K – the number one type of energy consuming device, NME – rated power of the device To start – coefficient in-rush current.
5
The calculation steps are the following:

- determine by the data sheet rated power of all appliances;
- calculate the power rating of the device with a given voltage at the time of start;
- sum all received values;
- multiply the amount by 1.1 (i.e. add 10% for reserve stock to the energy source not work wear).
6
Example: the house has 5 sources of energy consumption: oven (NMA = 900 W), 2 incandescent bulbs (NMA = 2*100 W), refrigerator (NMA = 600 W) and TV (NMA = 500 watts). A fridge and TV are of capacitor resistance, so they need to adjust the ratio of starting current to 2.5.

Solution: according to the formula 1,1*(1*900*1 + 2*100*1 + 1*600*2,5 + 1*500*2,5), the total capacity of 4,235 kW. Accordingly, the power source must have a capacity of not less than 4.3 kW.
7
The average country house in need of generator power output current of about 6 kW. The cost of wind turbines of such capacity is about 16 000$, solar battery will cost 19 000$. Albeit not everyone can afford such installation but in the near future many will be forced to move to consumption of alternative energy sources.

Advice 2: How to calculate the cost of water

Receiving a receipt for payment of utilities, not the end of each imagine how it calculated the cost of these services. Consider everything in detail for example the payment of water.Each month the owners took out a mailbox a receipt for payment of utility services, particularly for wastewater and for hot and cold water. Sometimes the rates surprise you, how to sort out tricky numbers and charges?
How to calculate the cost of water
Instruction
1
Wastewater or sewage. If you have installed metering devices or personal meters of water in the apartment, expect the amount of expenses as follows: fold the quantity of hot and cold water , and multiply by the rate applicable to your residence. If the metering devices you are missing, count value according to the norm from each tenant of your apartment (the ratio depends on the category of the house in which you live).
2
Cold water and hot water. Calculate the cost according to the tariff, it will depend on the category of the house in which you live. If the house has a communal metering metering device for hot and cold water, in the receipt you will see the designation CWS DPU DPU and the GW. In this case, expect the cost of water supply, focusing on the counters, multiplied by the rates applicable in your city, and divided by the number of people staying in the apartment.
3
Note that from the testimony deduct expenses for other house needs (cleaning of hallways and stairwells, cleaning of territory). If you have the apartment has individual metering in receipt of it will be designated as CWS and GW IPU IPU. This means that to calculate the cost you will be based on the meter readings multiplied by the corresponding tariffs for cold and hot water.

Advice 3: How to calculate the lamp power

For proper illumination of rooms, corridors or free-standing object, such as aquarium, you need to determine the appropriate type of lamp: number, location and capacity of the installed lamps. There are a few rules, doing that, just to perform this task.
How to calculate the lamp power
You will need
  • roulette, sheet of paper, pen, calculator
Instruction
1
For the General calculation of the lamps use the following formula: P=pS/N, p –power, the specific lighting, measured in Watts per square meter (the average is 20 Watts per square meter), S is the area of the premises, for which this lamp is calculated in square meters and N is the number of lamps.
2
Example: calculate the room measure the length and width of the room. The results obtained (for example, 3.3 meters long and 4.5 meters wide) between multiply and get the area of this room (3,3 × 4,4 = 14,85 square meters). This figure multiply by 20 and divide by the expected number of bulbs in lamps. For example, take the 3 lamps on 2 lamps in each. In this case, 14,85 multiply by 20 and divide by 6 (3×2=6). Get the result, which means that in this case, you have 6 lamps at 49.5 Watts.
3
Can vary the wattage in each lamp, dividing the room into several zones with different lighting. The total power of all lamps in the room should not be less than 297 Watts.
4
In some cases it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the premises, which make the calculation of the total power of the installed lamps. In this case, do the calculation, substituting the value of the coefficient p in the table below:property Type|incandescent Lamp|Halogen lamp|fluorescent svyatetsky room..............30-85....................70-85....................15-22
Living room.....................15-35....................25-35....................7-10
Bedroom......................10-25....................15-17....................4-7
Corridor......................10-20....................10-13....................3-5
Kitchen........................15-40....................30-37....................6-10
Bathroom...............15-30....................22-27....................6-9
Storage room, garage..............12-15....................11-14....................3-5Здесь, to calculate, for example, lighting in the kitchen (area 3 meters square) with the use of fluorescent lamps, take the coefficient of p (average 9) from table, multiply by the kitchen area and if you will be trehrozhkovye lamp, divide by three: 9×3/3 = 9 Watts in each of the three installed in the lamp bulb.

Advice 4: How to calculate power consumption

Calculation of power consumption is often made for bodies operating from the electrical energy. Maximum consumed power is called nominal and specified in the consumer or in the technical documentation. If the device does not operate in nominal conditions, the consumed power can be calculated independently.
How to calculate power consumption
You will need
  • tester;
  • - caliper;
  • - the range.
Instruction
1
Carefully inspect the appliance or technical documentation. It should be specified rated voltage and rated power. For example, if a bulb is written 220 V, 100 W, this means that if this lamp to include in a standard home network, the voltage is 220 V, the consumption power of the lamp is 100 watts.
2
When one of these parameters is unknown, connect the device to the network and with a tester find the amount of current flowing through it and the voltage at which it operates. To do this, configure the tester for operation of the ammeter. Connect it to your consumer consistently. If the device works on DC, be sure to consider the polarity of its accession. Remove his testimony, measuring the current strength in amperes.
3
Then switch the tester for operation of the voltmeter and connect it in the correct orientation in the case of a constant current, parallel to the device. Take readings of the tester in volts. In order to find the consumed power, multiply the voltage value at a current P=U•I.
4
If you know the resistance of the device, which is provided in the documentation or measured by the ohmmeter, which you can configure the tester. Then just measure the amperage or the voltage. Then the consumed power is equal to the product of the square of the current to the resistance P= I2•R. And if you measure the voltage, determine consumed power as the ratio of the square of the voltage resistance of the consumer is P=U2/R.
5
Motor power will determine its size. To do this, measure the diameter of the core, its the same length and the synchronous speed, check out the pole division of the engine, and it by using a special table constant motor constant of the motor. Calculate consumed powerby multiplying a constant engine core diameter squared, length, and synchronous speed. Multiply the result by 10(^-6) (P = C•D2•l•n•10^(-6)). The received power will be in kW.

Advice 5: How to measure power consumption

Sometimes it is necessary to know the amount of energy consumed by one or a group of devices. You must obtain the value of instantaneous power consumption. Using this value is easy to calculate the consumed power for a certain period of time. There are several ways to solve this problem.
How to measure power consumption
You will need
  • AC voltmeter, AC ammeter, wattmeter.
Instruction
1
In some cases, the instantaneous power consumption of the appliance stated in his passport data. To get the value of their consumption of electricity over a certain period of time, multiply the instantaneous energy consumed (in kW) of the device to the value of the period of time during which he worked (in hours). For example, when calculating the energy consumption of household with a TV with a power consumption of 80 Watt, who has worked for 3.5 hours, multiply the capacity of the TV (0,08 kW) time (3.5 hours). Get the value of the total energy consumed by the TV during this time: 0,08 × 3,5 = 0.28 kilowatt-hours. In the case when you need to calculate the total consumed power of the group of devices, the consumed power is first calculated for each device, then these values are summed.
2
To measure the instantaneous power consumption of the device turn on the parallel plug of the instrument AC voltmeter, series - ammeter in AC. Turn on the device. Count and multiply the obtained values of voltage and current. For example, the resulting voltage was 218 Volts, and the current is 0.75 Ampere: 218 × 0,75 = 163,5 Watt. Multiply this value by the amount of time during which he worked (e.g. 6 hours) and get the value of the consumed power: 0,1635 × 6 = 0,981 per kilowatt-hour.
3
With the availability of modern household wattmeter plug it into an electrical outlet. Then connect the measured consumer current in the socket located on the housing of the power meter. Consider the value of the instantaneous energy consumption. On some models, the power meter further specify the value of energy consumed since the inclusion of time.

Advice 6: How to pay for electricity of common areas

In accordance with the rules under the number 491 on the maintenance of the General property of an apartment house, each owner or public housing tenant is obliged to pay for consumed electricity in areas of common use. This category of costs are: illumination of entrances, elevators, pumps, lighting in front of building entrances and communal power losses calculated by the difference between the total consumption of the house and the amount paid for the use of electricitymeters inside the apartments.
How to pay for electricity of common areas
You will need
  • calculator;
  • - meter readings for all apartments;
  • - testimony of communal counter;
  • previous readings on all meters.
Instruction
1
Pay for the consumed electricity in places of the General use of receipt showing payment for the current month. Own personal count is not necessary. This involved the authorized representatives of the owner of an apartment building and send the receipt in the name of the owner or responsible tenant housing.
2
The calculation is made according to the "Rules of granting of utilities", which are approved by the Government of the Russian Federation No. 307 dated 20.05.06. The formula to calculate: take readings at the building counter, multiplied by the current in the region rate. Count separately the consumed electricity in the apartments. It turns out the difference which is paid for consumed electricity in areas of common use. Next, the calculated ratio, which must be paid by the owner or renter. The amount of electricity consumed in the apartment multiplied by a factor.
3
To verify the correctness of the calculation and the accrued amount, you can own. To do this, from the amount of consumption of communal counter subtract the total consumption of electricity in all apartments. For example, the total power consumption calculated by the readings of condominium of the counter is 1000 kW, the house has 5 apartments. The first apartment had spent over a month of 100 kW, the second - 50 kW, the third – 150 kW, the fourth - 120 kW, the fifth - 200 kW. 100+50+150+120+200=620 kW was out of the apartment. Of the total, which in the example is 1000 kW, subtract the total amount of electricity consumed, i.e. 620, get a 380 kW is the amount of electricity consumed at a block of flats.
4
Calculate the factor to apply to each apartment. For this 380 kW divide by 620, will 0,61 – this is the factor by which each owner or renter of the housing will receive a receipt. The amount of charge is directly proportional to the consumed electricity in his apartment. The more kWh of electricity consumed by tenants in the apartment, the higher the amount you pay for a block of flats.
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