Advice 1: What is neutral water

The term "neutral waters" means waters that are beyond the States ' borders. This can be oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, groundwater and even swamps.
The concept of "neutral water" comes from international law
The seas and oceans outside the territory of countries referred to as "the open sea". The ship, sailing in international waters fall under the law of the country whose flag installed on them. If the ship is involved in criminal activities such as piracy, any nation can intervene and exercise jurisdiction.

What's the concept of "neutral water"



From a legal point of view, the concept of "neutral water" owed its origin to the Dutch lawyer Grotius. In 1609 he published his work entitled "the Free sea". When in the early 17th century several countries, including Portugal and Spain, began to lay claim to full control over all the seas and oceans, the Dutch protested, as it would have blocked them the opportunity to trade with many foreign ports.

Grotius, the pioneer in international law, defended the right to navigation in the open sea. He insisted that the territory of the seas were free for all, and that ships could easily sail from one port to another.
In their statements, Grotius relied on Roman law and the customs of the Maritime navigation in Asia and Africa.


The boundaries of the open sea



The idea that freedom of movement on the seas should extend to the shoreline, and did not become a reality. The question of how far should be regarded as internal waters, caused a lot of controversy. The risk of smuggling and military attacks prompted the country bordering the shores of the seas and oceans, to demand the right to water in its banks.
In the early 18th century inland waters of the country was considered to be a distance equal to three miles. It was the distance of the flight of a Cannonball.


In 1982 was adopted the UN Convention on the law of the sea – a document stating the current situation. According to this Convention, each country determines the width of the inner waters. Most countries have expanded this area to 12 miles (22.2 km). It is called the "contiguous zone". About 30 States have maintained the width of 3 miles.

The Convention also provides for the possibility of the right to an exclusive economic zone. This sea area width 200 miles (370,4 km), within which the coastal state may exercise research and has access to the use of marine resources. Within this area of the ship by other States can freely swim. Not all countries claim exclusive economic zone.

There is also the concept of "contiguous zone". Its width is 24 miles (44,4 km). Within this zone the state has the right to stop the ship and to arrange a test and to exercise jurisdiction if necessary, i.e. if violated the laws of this country. Water space, which are outside all of the borders, consider "open sea". They are referred to as "neutral waters".

Advice 2: What a complex salt

Average, acidic and basic salts are the products of complete or incomplete substitution of hydrogen atoms in molecules of acids with metal atoms or hydroxide ions in the molecules of bases acidic residues. But in addition to medium, acidic and basic, there are also double and complex salts. What are they?
What a complex salt

How to form double and complex salts



Double and complex salts are formed by connecting the neutral molecules of different substances with each other. These classes differ in the nature of dissociation in aqueous solutions: if double salts dissociate single stage to cations of both metals (or ammonium cation) and anions of acidic residues, while the dissociation of complex salts formed complex ions exhibiting high stability in the aqueous medium. Examples of dissociation of complexes:

[Cu(NH3)4]SO4=[Cu(NH3)4](2+)+SO4(2-),

K3[Fe(CN)6]=3K(+)+[Fe(CN)6](3-).
The complex salts are weak electrolytes, therefore, dissociate in aqueous solutions is reversible. Is both direct and reverse reaction.


Theory of complex compounds



The theory of complex compounds created by the Swiss chemist A. Werner. According to this theory, in the center of the molecule is an ion-complexing agent (metal ion) around which is oriented opposite sign ions or neutral molecules called ligands, or Addendum.
Most often, the Central ion-complexing agents are d-elements.


The ligand hydroxocomplexes are the hydroxide ions OH-, acidogenesis – acid residue anions (NO2-, CN-, Cl-, Br -, etc.), amiantov and aquacomplexes neutral molecules of ammonia and water. For example: Na2[Zn(OH)4], K4[Fe(CN)6], [Ag(NH3)2]Cl, [Al(H2O)6]Cl3.

Ion-complexing with ligands forms the inner sphere of complex compounds, denoted by square brackets. The number of ligands around the Central ion is the coordination number. The charge of a complex ion is the sum of the charges of ion-complexing agent and ligands.
The charge of a complex ion equals the charge of the complexing agent, if the ligands are neutral molecules (e.g. ammonia or water).


Ions in brackets to form an outer sphere complex. Depending on the charge of the inner sphere, they can be cations or anyname.

What is the role of complex compounds in living plants and animals



Complex compounds perform specific metabolic functions in living organisms. They are necessary for the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, oxidation, and enzymatic catalysis. So, the chlorophyll in the cells of green plants is a coordination compound of magnesium, hemoglobin – iron complex. Vitamin B12 is a complex compound of cobalt.

Advice 3: What is homeopathic medicines

Homeopathic medicines are very widely used in the modern world for the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infections. The majority of people using them have no idea of how to act these medicines. So what lurks under the phrase "homeopathic medicines"?
What is homeopathic medicines
Instruction
1
Homeopathy is a special system of treatment, developed by German Dr. Samuel Hanemanna. In the late eighteenth century he formulated the basic principles of homeopathy, which since then has not changed.
2
The main principle of homeopathy is that if a substance causes a symptom of any disease, small doses of this substance have the opposite effect, i.e., eliminate the disease. A classic example is quinine, a substance that is derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree. It causes fever and other symptoms similar to malaria. Accordingly, small doses of this substance from the point of view of homeopathy malaria need to be treated. In other words, "like cures like".
3
The second of the fundamental principles of homeopathy concerns the ideas about the size of a small doses of the substance. In homeopathy under similar doses understand an infinitely small quantity. The active substance is diluted in water, it is shaken or dinamiteros. Shaking allows water to remember the benefits (energy, essence) of the substance, to gather information. In the water due to infinitesimal dilutions may not be a single molecule of the active substance. To treat this case we use the memory or the information density of the liquid. The higher the dilution of the medicines in homeopathy, the less active substances present in its composition.
4
As a rule, such water is mixed with ordinary icing sugar or other neutral substance, and obtained from her balls already assigned to the patient. It should be noted that currently, homeopathic medicines can be manufactured in ointments, drops, solutions and even candles.
5
It is believed that charged water affects not so much on the physical body of man as to its energy field. It is as if this field conveys the correct information. Homeopaths believe that they treat not a disease, but directly to the patient, which is the third principle of homeopathy. That treatment can be more effective, it is not recommended to use more than two drugs.
6
Unfortunately, to prove the efficacy of homeopathic medicines using the principles of conventional medicine, it is impossible. Homeopathy can be built on the belief or the effect "placebo". Only this can explain why for some people it has a really noticeable effect, allowing you to cope with serious diseases and others does not help.
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