Components and production technology of Swarovski crystals
The formula for the production of Swarovski crystals opened in the 1890s, Daniel Swarovski, who became the founder bearing his company name. His invention was a special form of glass, called lead crystal. The main ingredients for its production are quartz (silicon dioxide), sand, minerals, and oxide of lead. These substances melted at a high temperature, then the resulting molten glass is slowly cooled.
A distinctive feature of the Swarovski crystals is the presence of a large number of lead — about 32%, while for other producers of crystal, the norm is between 24 to 30%. The use of lead allows to make material that can withstand further processing, including cutting and engraving. Ready crystals have a much lower hardness than diamond, but they are harder than normal glass. Lead also increases the refractive index of light inside the crystal that brings his brilliance to the diamond.
Jewelry made of Swarovski crystals should be protected from exposure to water, household chemicals, mechanical damage. In the absence of the original packaging, it is desirable to store them in soft paper or tissue.
After cooling the glass mass cut crystals. Swarovski crystals make a variety of shapes: octagon, teardrop, snowflake, heart, oval. Each crystal has its own unique style, the number and shape of faces. In this case, is used exclusively machine cut, so the face is very smooth and clear. It also contributes to the manifestation of extraordinary brilliance. The result of polishing receive products of very high quality.
Many crystals are subjected to further chemical and thermal treatments. To give various shades or extra Shine, using special coatings. One of them is called Aurora Borealis (AB finish). This coating gives the crystal a shimmering rainbow effect, that makes it extremely beautiful. Some products are colorless, without impurities.
The Aurora Borealis coating was developed in 1956 in conjunction with French fashion designer Christian Dior.
Course Swarovski to improve products
The exact manufacturing process Swarovski crystals, the ratio of initial components, coatings and methods of cutting are the property of the company and will be kept confidential. The guiding principle of the company since 1895 and still remains: "to Constantly improve what is good".
In accordance with this principle, the company uses only the best materials and constantly improving methods of production and processing of natural resources. Proof of this was developed in 2004 a method of Xilion cut, significantly increasing the brilliance of the crystal, and the transition in September 2012, the new standard: an innovative composition, almost does not contain lead.
Advice 2: How to grow crystals of copper sulfate
Crystals have always been a curiosity and amazement. Nature itself took care of the phenomenon of their growth, resulting in formation of crystals bizarre shapes. It is possible to grow crystals of copper sulphate alone at home, especially since the reagent required for this is so common that there is almost in every house. Is copper sulfate, which has a crystalline blue color, and its anhydrous salt is pale blue. For growing crystals are perfect for both.
You will need
- The glass plate or saucer, copper sulfate, clearcoat
Buy copper sulfate, or copper sulfate can be in any shop for repairs or gardening, because the purpose of copper sulphate in the spraying of trees and shrubs from pests. There is no need to use specialized chemical utensils, and all the laboratory manipulations can be performed in an ordinary Cup and saucer.
First preparing primary saturated salt solution. To do this, take half a Cup of hot water and dissolve half a teaspoon of copper sulphate. After complete dissolution of the repeat dissolution of salt until then, until it ceases to dissolve. Thus, you get a saturated solution of copper sulphate.
To the crystals was beautiful and clean, it is necessary the mixture is filtered, and as quickly as possible, before the crystallization. The filtrate obtained is poured into a saucer and cover glass (you can not cover it up, but if dust or insects into the solution will be contaminated and eventually the crystals will lose their purity).
Through the day, and perhaps earlier, it is already possible to observe the precipitated small crystals. They appear a lot, and some of them are clusters, and some single trees. It is the latest diamond crystals and need to pay attention. For further work it is necessary to choose crystals most correct form without any inclusions or impurities.
Then again, preparing a solution of copper sulphate, which is now called the fallopian, and in a similar way. The filtrate obtained is poured into a saucer or plate and carefully placed it the selected crystals in an amount of from 2 to 5 pieces. An important condition is them distant from each other location, or during their own growth they can talk among themselves and then the formed crystals will not work. Then close the capacity of the glass and from time to time prepare a new stock solution and carefully pour to the previous one, in which the younger crystals.
Takes a few weeks to grow crystals of copper sulphate in the form of a beautiful diamond-shaped formations of saturated blue. Just need to remember that the product is very fragile and gradually loses water, becoming a soft powder blue color is the anhydrous salt, that is, in other words is the destruction of the crystals. So in order to preserve their cover with a colourless varnish.
Similarly, we can obtain the "miracle stone" on the thread, if you just position the original obtained crystals along the bone on the bottom of the dish. The end result is self-made necklace of blue jewels. The grown crystals can be a subject of pride of their own achievements in the field of chemistry.
If you want to get a single, correct form of the crystals, ensure that during topping up the solution on the major crystals are not dropped new smaller crystals.