Advice 1: How to make references in the abstract

When writing a paper you are dealing with original texts. Therefore, in order to avoid accusations of plagiarism, you must correctly use citations and to issue bibliographical references. Even if you are not using direct and indirect citation – citing the source is still required.
How to make references in the abstract
You will need
  • - The text of the abstract in electronic form;
  • the list used in the abstract sources;
  • - GOST R 7.0.5-2008 "Bibliographic reference. General requirements and rules".
Instruction
1
Vnutritrekovye links placed in the text of the document, immediately after the quoted work or its fragments. They are enclosed in parentheses, for example: (Umnikov A. A. How to make a million. M.: Wise owl, 2011. P. 7). The obvious lack of references of this type: they clutter the main text. But immediately visible source, and the authors and the title of the work, and the important output. Use vnutritrekovye links, if your essay is not expected copious citation of sources.
2
Footnotes and references should be formatted as footnotes. For this you need the editor to Microsoft Word select "Insert – Reference – Footnote – at the Bottom of the page." Automatically displays a thin line at the bottom of the page and number the footnotes (or the asterisk). The font of the footnote text often 10th. In fact, the very design of the notes is no different from the previous case, except that brackets are not needed. At desire it is possible to give a more extended description of the source, indicate who is the editor or author of the translation, which is a re-release, the total number of pages.
3
They should be attached at links to the most popular. The list of references at the end of the abstract represents a set of Endnotes links. In fact, the text used references to zatekstovye links in square brackets. It may look like this: [5], [5, p. 83-89], [Clever, 2011, pp. 83-89], [Reasonableists, 2010; Smart 2011], [CIT. by: 5, p. 7], [Cm. 5; 12]. The numbering of references can go here or in the order of citation of sources, or in alphabetical order. All the nuances of references and bibliography, you need to look at the GOST R 7.0.5-2008.
4
Quite possibly, you'll need to make a link to the online source. If it's a book or an article having a printed version, but found you online, execute it as follows: Umnikov A. A. How to make a million. M.: Wise owl, 2011 [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.wiseowl.ru/books/umnik-7.pdf (accessed: 27.10.2011). Article in the electronic journal is issued: Umnikov A. A. How to spend a million // Problems of big business (electronic journal). Moscow: The Ruble, 2011. No. 4. URL: http://www.problem_bigbusiness.ru/issues/42011/1.pdf (accessed: 27.10.2011).
5
Do not torture the question is, how many links should be in the abstract. How much you need – but on condition that you use direct and indirect quoting is neither excessive nor insufficient. Links almost after each sentence or paragraph is inappropriate and indicates the inability of the author to work competently with other people's texts. Too rare and their presence (or even absence) in the text indicates the presence of plagiarism and the dishonesty of the author of the abstract. So try to cite sources and place links to the abstract, avoiding these extremes.
Note
If you have to cite the source that you just quoted or mentioned above, please follow the formatting rules re links. For example, the second reference to the same source, replace the words "ibid" or "Ibid.": [Ibid. P. 17], [Ibid. P. 17]. Abbreviation of the Latin "Ibidem" is used for languages with Latin script.
Useful advice
Don't forget to use comprehensive reference is when you refer not to a single source, but several. The sources are listed using a semicolon, with each link in the combined reference is made under the above General rules.

Advice 2 : How to do references in essay

When writing essays and research papers using various sources. According to the accepted standards, at the mention in the text information from these sources, you should make them links.
How to do references in essay
Instruction
1
Links to the scientific papers are paged (which are located on the same page, which mentions the source) and end (located at the end of a section or Chapter). To make in the abstract the link using MS Word, go to the tab "References".
2
Place the cursor immediately after the word or phrase that you want to add a link. Further, depending on the type of link, choose either "Insert footnote" or "Insert endnote directly". Word, next to which stood a cursor will be marked with a sign Superscript Arabic numeral. The bottom of the page or at the end of a line will appear marked with the same number.
3
Fill in the displayed string information about the source you cited information. In the link specify the author and title of source, year and place of publication, page on which the quote you used. Example: Balabanov I. T. Currency transaction / I. T. Balabanov. - M.: Finance and STATISTICA, 1993. - P.52.
Note
If you quote the text is not the source, then link start words, "op. CIT. to:".

If the situation you mention, are disclosed in several sources, use the words: "See, eg.:", "See, in particular, ...".

When it is necessary to note that the link contains additional resources, please specify: "See. also:".
Useful advice
As a rule, essays are used page links with continuous numbering.

If you cite multiple references to the same source on the same page of the abstract, the footnotes state the words: "ibid" and page number referenced.

Even if some source info mentioned in the text of the abstract (e.g., author's name or book title), you still repeat it in the link. The footnote after the quote put, if an explanatory text is preceded by her or included her in the middle.

Advice 3 : How to make links to the thesis

When writing the thesis it is necessary not only to create an appropriate level and theme of the text, but also the right to execute him. For scientific and student's works there is a certain standard the parts of the text, including references.
How to make links to the thesis
Instruction
1
Decide how you want to organize a system of footnotes in the text. They can be placed at the bottom of the page or at the end of the text, after the conclusion. The possible variations with the numbering. It can be through, that is the same for the whole text, or to begin anew after each Chapter. Any of these options is allowed by design standards.
2
For the book mentioned in the text the first time, use the full format description. In this case, first comes the author's name and then his initials. This is followed by the full title of the book, listed beneath the cover. After a point you have to write the city of publication. The name need to write completely with the exception of some common abbreviations: M. - Moscow, SPb. - Sankt-Peterburg, Leningrad - Leningrad. Followed by year of publication and page number or pages, the text from which you quote. Thus, the footnote should appear as: Ivanov, A. A. History of Russia in XIX century. M., 1959. P. 5-6.
3
In the absence of the books of one author, for example, if a collection, begin the footnote with the title of the study. The compiler and editors, if specified, separated by a slash after the title. An example of such a description: a General biology / under the editorship of A. A. Petrov and S. S. Sidorov. M., 1980. P. 56.
4
If you give a few in a row zutat from the same edition, replace the second and subsequent footnotes of the author and the title with the words "There". Example: ibid. P. 76.
5
Links to articles from magazines make with the indication of the periodical title and issue number. This information is given through the slash after the title of the article. In this case, the footnote is as follows - Petrova I. I. problems of chronology of Ancient Rus / Questions of history, Moscow, 1999, №2. P. 7-8.
6
When referencing literature in a foreign language, write the author's name in full, not initials. Also, if the title of the book is given in any language, presumably unknown to the reader, for example, in Japanese, the title and author's name in parentheses to translate.
7
When making references to electronic resources - databases and websites - focus on standards in your school. Currently, the unified rules in the citation of these sources is not, and those that exist are regularly reviewed. Therefore it is best to seek advice from their supervisor.
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