Advice 1: How to make references in the abstract

When writing a paper you are dealing with original texts. Therefore, in order to avoid accusations of plagiarism, you must correctly use citations and to issue bibliographical references. Even if you are not using direct and indirect citation – citing the source is still required.
How to make references in the abstract
You will need
  • - The text of the abstract in electronic form;
  • the list used in the abstract sources;
  • - GOST R 7.0.5-2008 "Bibliographic reference. General requirements and rules".
Vnutritrekovye links placed in the text of the document, immediately after the quoted work or its fragments. They are enclosed in parentheses, for example: (Umnikov A. A. How to make a million. M.: Wise owl, 2011. P. 7). The obvious lack of references of this type: they clutter the main text. But immediately visible source, and the authors and the title of the work, and the important output. Use vnutritrekovye links, if your essay is not expected copious citation of sources.
Footnotes and references should be formatted as footnotes. For this you need the editor to Microsoft Word select "Insert – Reference – Footnote – at the Bottom of the page." Automatically displays a thin line at the bottom of the page and number the footnotes (or the asterisk). The font of the footnote text often 10th. In fact, the very design of the notes is no different from the previous case, except that brackets are not needed. At desire it is possible to give a more extended description of the source, indicate who is the editor or author of the translation, which is a re-release, the total number of pages.
They should be attached at links to the most popular. The list of references at the end of the abstract represents a set of Endnotes links. In fact, the text used references to zatekstovye links in square brackets. It may look like this: [5], [5, p. 83-89], [Clever, 2011, pp. 83-89], [Reasonableists, 2010; Smart 2011], [CIT. by: 5, p. 7], [Cm. 5; 12]. The numbering of references can go here or in the order of citation of sources, or in alphabetical order. All the nuances of references and bibliography, you need to look at the GOST R 7.0.5-2008.
Quite possibly, you'll need to make a link to the online source. If it's a book or an article having a printed version, but found you online, execute it as follows: Umnikov A. A. How to make a million. M.: Wise owl, 2011 [Electronic resource]. URL: (accessed: 27.10.2011). Article in the electronic journal is issued: Umnikov A. A. How to spend a million // Problems of big business (electronic journal). Moscow: The Ruble, 2011. No. 4. URL: (accessed: 27.10.2011).
Do not torture the question is, how many links should be in the abstract. How much you need – but on condition that you use direct and indirect quoting is neither excessive nor insufficient. Links almost after each sentence or paragraph is inappropriate and indicates the inability of the author to work competently with other people's texts. Too rare and their presence (or even absence) in the text indicates the presence of plagiarism and the dishonesty of the author of the abstract. So try to cite sources and place links to the abstract, avoiding these extremes.
If you have to cite the source that you just quoted or mentioned above, please follow the formatting rules re links. For example, the second reference to the same source, replace the words "ibid" or "Ibid.": [Ibid. P. 17], [Ibid. P. 17]. Abbreviation of the Latin "Ibidem" is used for languages with Latin script.
Useful advice
Don't forget to use comprehensive reference is when you refer not to a single source, but several. The sources are listed using a semicolon, with each link in the combined reference is made under the above General rules.

Advice 2: How to make quotes

If your activity is somehow connected with the writing of texts, especially scientific works, articles, essays, literary essays and reviews, working with text, you, like any other author, can not do without a citation. Citation or publication in your text verbatim excerpts from someone else's text, can deepen the meaning of your work, to give it extra atmosphere and color, but to quotes have played a positive role in the text, they need to be able to properly execute.
How to make quotes
Quote must be appropriate according to meaning and content, and it should not be too voluminous, and must be transmitted verbatim without distortion in the original text.
Not to take snippets of quotes out of context and not retell the quote, interspersing the retelling with the original inserts.
Use the sentence or passage completely, without tearing it and keeping the logic of the narrative. The proposal, which you quote, must be completed.
This files most often quote isolated by quotation marks. At the beginning of the quote put the opening quotation mark and after the last sign of it closing. Also, that quote was more visible in the text, you can highlight it in italics or a smaller font than your own text.
The inner content quotes never change, keep it the way it was created by the author. You can only highlight some of the words further formatting – for example, the most important, in your opinion, can you say bold.
Any changes to the inside quotes (for example, italics to individual words) must be specified immediately after it, in parentheses, or placed in a footnote. The author quotes are always to be given immediately after the quotation marks, in parentheses.
If you comment on the quote after the comment put a dot, a dash and your initials or the initials of the person who left the quote comment.
Between your text and the following quote put a colon in that case if your words precede the meaning of the appearance of quotes. Also, before you quote after your words can put a full stop if the quotation is a complete sentence. If the quotation is merely a Supplement to your proposal, how would becoming its organic part, punctuation is not needed.
After the closing quotation mark if they are there are no signs that you have to put. The point is always placed after the quotation marks but question marks and exclamation marks – in front of them. If before the closing quotation mark is the ellipsis, the signs are placed.
There are also rules for which quotes need to start with a lowercase or uppercase letters. The quote should begin with a capital letter, if it is the beginning of a full proposal.

Advice 3: How to do references in essay

When writing essays and research papers using various sources. According to the accepted standards, at the mention in the text information from these sources, you should make them links.
How to do references in essay
Links to the scientific papers are paged (which are located on the same page, which mentions the source) and end (located at the end of a section or Chapter). To make in the abstract the link using MS Word, go to the tab "References".
Place the cursor immediately after the word or phrase that you want to add a link. Further, depending on the type of link, choose either "Insert footnote" or "Insert endnote directly". Word, next to which stood a cursor will be marked with a sign Superscript Arabic numeral. The bottom of the page or at the end of a line will appear marked with the same number.
Fill in the displayed string information about the source you cited information. In the link specify the author and title of source, year and place of publication, page on which the quote you used. Example: Balabanov I. T. Currency transaction / I. T. Balabanov. - M.: Finance and STATISTICA, 1993. - P.52.
If you quote the text is not the source, then link start words, "op. CIT. to:".

If the situation you mention, are disclosed in several sources, use the words: "See, eg.:", "See, in particular, ...".

When it is necessary to note that the link contains additional resources, please specify: "See. also:".
Useful advice
As a rule, essays are used page links with continuous numbering.

If you cite multiple references to the same source on the same page of the abstract, the footnotes state the words: "ibid" and page number referenced.

Even if some source info mentioned in the text of the abstract (e.g., author's name or book title), you still repeat it in the link. The footnote after the quote put, if an explanatory text is preceded by her or included her in the middle.
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