Advice 1: How to make references in the abstract

When writing a paper you are dealing with original texts. Therefore, in order to avoid accusations of plagiarism, you must correctly use citations and to issue bibliographical references. Even if you are not using direct and indirect citation – citing the source is still required.
How to make references in the abstract
You will need
  • - The text of the abstract in electronic form;
  • the list used in the abstract sources;
  • - GOST R 7.0.5-2008 "Bibliographic reference. General requirements and rules".
Instruction
1
Vnutritrekovye links placed in the text of the document, immediately after the quoted work or its fragments. They are enclosed in parentheses, for example: (Umnikov A. A. How to make a million. M.: Wise owl, 2011. P. 7). The obvious lack of references of this type: they clutter the main text. But immediately visible source, and the authors and the title of the work, and the important output. Use vnutritrekovye links, if your essay is not expected copious citation of sources.
2
Footnotes and references should be formatted as footnotes. For this you need the editor to Microsoft Word select "Insert – Reference – Footnote – at the Bottom of the page." Automatically displays a thin line at the bottom of the page and number the footnotes (or the asterisk). The font of the footnote text often 10th. In fact, the very design of the notes is no different from the previous case, except that brackets are not needed. At desire it is possible to give a more extended description of the source, indicate who is the editor or author of the translation, which is a re-release, the total number of pages.
3
They should be attached at links to the most popular. The list of references at the end of the abstract represents a set of Endnotes links. In fact, the text used references to zatekstovye links in square brackets. It may look like this: [5], [5, p. 83-89], [Clever, 2011, pp. 83-89], [Reasonableists, 2010; Smart 2011], [CIT. by: 5, p. 7], [Cm. 5; 12]. The numbering of references can go here or in the order of citation of sources, or in alphabetical order. All the nuances of references and bibliography, you need to look at the GOST R 7.0.5-2008.
4
Quite possibly, you'll need to make a link to the online source. If it's a book or an article having a printed version, but found you online, execute it as follows: Umnikov A. A. How to make a million. M.: Wise owl, 2011 [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.wiseowl.ru/books/umnik-7.pdf (accessed: 27.10.2011). Article in the electronic journal is issued: Umnikov A. A. How to spend a million // Problems of big business (electronic journal). Moscow: The Ruble, 2011. No. 4. URL: http://www.problem_bigbusiness.ru/issues/42011/1.pdf (accessed: 27.10.2011).
5
Do not torture the question is, how many links should be in the abstract. How much you need – but on condition that you use direct and indirect quoting is neither excessive nor insufficient. Links almost after each sentence or paragraph is inappropriate and indicates the inability of the author to work competently with other people's texts. Too rare and their presence (or even absence) in the text indicates the presence of plagiarism and the dishonesty of the author of the abstract. So try to cite sources and place links to the abstract, avoiding these extremes.
Note
If you have to cite the source that you just quoted or mentioned above, please follow the formatting rules re links. For example, the second reference to the same source, replace the words "ibid" or "Ibid.": [Ibid. P. 17], [Ibid. P. 17]. Abbreviation of the Latin "Ibidem" is used for languages with Latin script.
Useful advice
Don't forget to use comprehensive reference is when you refer not to a single source, but several. The sources are listed using a semicolon, with each link in the combined reference is made under the above General rules.

Advice 2 : How to make footnotes in the diploma

The design of the diploma must meet strict requirements, the violation of which may result in a lower overall estimation for the job. Design rules relate to including footnotes. These are common to all rules established in accordance with GOST (GOST R 7.0.5-2008).
The design of footnotes - painstaking work, but important
Instruction
1
A few words about terminology. References call information about the source data used in the thesis. Links are intratextual and subscript. And that subscript references are called footnotes. Footnotes are located at the bottom of the page and separated from the text by a short straight pipe (15 underscores on the left side).
2
The first reference to the work of any author should contain the name and initials of the author (if the work has two authors, you should indicate the names and initials of both, and, if more than two authors, after the name of the second need to put "etc."), full title of work, year of publication and number of pages used. If you make the footnote a monograph or a textbook, it should look like this: Ivanov I. I. General theory. M.: Publishing House, 1999. P. 14. Reference to an article is somewhat different: Ivanov I. I. the Theory: public and private// the name of the magazine. – 2005. – No. 33. – S. 14. But if you make a reference to a law or regulatory document, make it so: the Law of September 10, 2007 № 144 "On amendments to the law" // the Legislation of the Russian Federation. – 2010. – No. 48. – St. 348. If you are referencing an electronic source, use the abbreviation URL, and then specify the electronic source (URL: http://.....).
3
If the same page has multiple footnotes to the same source, it will be executed only the first note, and subsequently substituted the words "ibid" and the page number of the source to which you refer. The numbering of the footnotes should be uniform: end-to-end for the entire document or page.
Note
Universities sometimes complement the standards of registration established by the GOST, own rules. So be sure to find out the requirements for the footnotes that exist in your University.

Advice 3 : How to do references in essay

When writing essays and research papers using various sources. According to the accepted standards, at the mention in the text information from these sources, you should make them links.
How to do references in essay
Instruction
1
Links to the scientific papers are paged (which are located on the same page, which mentions the source) and end (located at the end of a section or Chapter). To make in the abstract the link using MS Word, go to the tab "References".
2
Place the cursor immediately after the word or phrase that you want to add a link. Further, depending on the type of link, choose either "Insert footnote" or "Insert endnote directly". Word, next to which stood a cursor will be marked with a sign Superscript Arabic numeral. The bottom of the page or at the end of a line will appear marked with the same number.
3
Fill in the displayed string information about the source you cited information. In the link specify the author and title of source, year and place of publication, page on which the quote you used. Example: Balabanov I. T. Currency transaction / I. T. Balabanov. - M.: Finance and STATISTICA, 1993. - P.52.
Note
If you quote the text is not the source, then link start words, "op. CIT. to:".

If the situation you mention, are disclosed in several sources, use the words: "See, eg.:", "See, in particular, ...".

When it is necessary to note that the link contains additional resources, please specify: "See. also:".
Useful advice
As a rule, essays are used page links with continuous numbering.

If you cite multiple references to the same source on the same page of the abstract, the footnotes state the words: "ibid" and page number referenced.

Even if some source info mentioned in the text of the abstract (e.g., author's name or book title), you still repeat it in the link. The footnote after the quote put, if an explanatory text is preceded by her or included her in the middle.

Advice 4 : How to do footnotes in the diploma

When writing term papers, theses, and other scientific work required is the addition of references that were used. Modern text editors support auto-mark the footnotes.
How to do footnotes in the diploma
You will need
  • computer;
  • - installed the Word program.
Instruction
1
Insert a footnote in Word 2007 document, this function allows the automatic numbering of references either under section or a continuous numbering throughout the document. If you delete or move a footnote, the numbering will change immediately.
2
To add a footnote to a document, specify the location where you want to insert. Next go to the tab "References", click "Insert a normal footnote. Also to add footnotes, you can use the key combination CTRL+ALT+F.
3
Change the format of the footnote, go to "dialog box Reference", click "number Format", or use your own markings to do this, click "Symbol" select the desired character. Next then click "Paste". Enter in the box that appears the text of the footnote, then double-click the number of the footnoteto return to the sign in the document.
4
Paste the footnotes in the document for Word 2003 and below. To do this, open the desired document, place the cursor after the word to which you want to add a footnote. Next, go to the menu "Insert", select "Link". In the dialog that appears, select "Footnote".
5
In the appeared window under "Position" select in field "End of footnote"in this field, select "end of document". Then set additional settings for the format of footnotes, if needed. Next, click "OK". You will be moved to the end of the document, to create a footnote. In the field enter the desired text.
6
Paste the footnotes on the current page of your diploma. To do this go to the menu "Insert" select "Reference" then "Footnote". Select in the field "Reference", select "Bottom of page". Select the desired number format, and method of numbering. After selecting the desired settings, click "OK" to add a page of footnotes in degree.

Advice 5 : How to make footnotes to the article

Term papers, thesis, dissertation or other academic work suggesting links to the work of reputable authors. Often, you want to make subscript footnote to an article published in the journal. It is important to learn how to do it correctly, using the features of text editor Microsoft Word, because a correct footnote – an important component of good work.
How to make footnotes to the article
Instruction
1
If you are writing coursework, thesis or dissertation, take in your educational Toolkit for the design work. Although there are common standards for footnotes, some of the requirements in different Universities can vary. For example, there is no unity in such matters as the allocation of the author's name in italics, font size, footnotes (10 or 12), etc. Read the manual, what are the requirements to the formatting of footnotes the school for which you are writing the work.
2
Determine what kind of citation you will use: direct (literal) or indirect (paraphrase). Direct quotation involves the use of a phrase from a source without changes, with the quotation highlighted quotation marks. Indirect quote means the retelling of thought taken from the articlein your own words. In this case quotation marks are not necessary.
3
Place the cursor after the quote. At the end of the sentence the cursor is set to point.
4
On the toolbar of the text editor Microsoft Word at the top of the computer screen, select menu "Insert", then "Reference" then "Footnote". In the opened window set the options footnotes: the position and format. Select the position of the footnote "bottom of page". In the format field, specify the number format: symbol footnotes with numbers or other symbols. Below footnotes were numbered separately on each page, in the "numbering" install "on every page". After that, click "Paste". As a result of your actions, where was the cursor, you will see a number (or other specified designation) footnote. The bottom of the page also shows the number (designation) of footnote, after which you must make a record of the source citation.
5
The entry in the subscript footnote do depending on the form of a citation. In a direct citation of articles of the journal, write the subscript footnote: "Smirnov, A. A., training of judges//Legal Gazette. - 2000. - No. 4. - P. 32". Indirect citation, write the footnote as follows: "See. about it: Smirnov A. A. training of judges//Legal Gazette. – 2000. - No. 4. – P. 32" or "See ... Smirnov A. A. training of judges//Legal Gazette. – 2000. - No. 4. – P. 32"
Note
If the source is a monograph, a textbook (textbook), thesis, law, etc., Endnotes will be handled differently.

Advice 6 : How to make a note

The note is the addition to the main text made beyond. These short reference that facilitates understanding of the scientific or artistic works are made by the author, translator or editor. They are used in most student papers, for example, in the course and diploma projects. Notes are divided into vnutritrekovye, subscripts, they should be attached at. For each species there are specific design rules.
How to make a note
Instruction
1
Vnutritrekovye notes are placed after the paragraph, graphics, or pattern requiring explanation. Start from text or graphic material 1.5-2 interval. Make a standard paragraph and write with capital letters the word "note". After he put the dash and attach the refinement to the main text. Note do not select bold or italic, not underline it.
2
Individual note serial number is not assigned. If a few notes, create a numbered list. As in the case of one note, indented from the main text. With a red line, write the word "notes" with a capital letter. The point is not put. Each note start on a new line after Arabic numerals.
3
For example: "having Considered the schedule of daily average temperature in Moscow and Moscow region at the end of January, the scientists came to the following conclusion. Notes 1. This chart reflects changes in the average temperature observed in rural areas. 2. Fair schedule when using the standard devices of the account of humidity and atmospheric pressure".
4
Footnotes placed at the bottom of the page, which is demanding explanations of fragments (text, table, graph, picture). Footnotes associated with the body mark of a footnote – with an asterisk or Arabic numeral. If the page no more than three notes, can denote them respectively *, ** and ***. However, it is better to use Arabic numerals written on the top edge of the row.
5
Put in the text to a footnote. The bottom of the page before reaching the border of the lower field for about 4-5 lines, draw a short straight line from the left margin with a length of 4-5 cm. below the line post notes. Each start with the "red line". Before the beginning of the sentence, put the appropriate footnote – the "star" or serial number of the notes. The word "notes" in this case is not written.
6
For example: "having Considered the schedule of daily average temperature in Moscow and Moscow region* in late January**, the researchers came to the conclusion that_______________ *This chart reflects changes in the average temperature observed in rural areas. **Schedule subject to fair use standard metering humidity and atmospheric pressure".
7
Write footnotes in a smaller font to visually differentiate it from the main text. Don't make sentences too long and do not overload them with facts and figures. At the end of each comment put a dot.
8
They should be attached at notes are often used in the literature. Their peculiarity lies in the arrangement. They are printed after the main text, at the end of the Chapter, section or end of the entire book. They should be attached at the notes easier to group. They do not violate the integrity of the work.
9
In the text, put a footnote. Endnotes for footnotes never use the "star", only Arabic numerals. The numbering of the notes may be continuous for the entire text or for each Chapter. In the first case, the section of the notes will be issued in a single numbered list. If each Chapter numbering starts over, divide the list of explanations apart. Each part title the title of the Chapter, which includes these notes. Inside the part place the numbered list.
10
For example:"notes to Chapter 12, "Measurement of daily average temperature".1. This chart reflects changes in the average temperature observed in rural areas. 2. Fair schedule when using the standard devices of the account of humidity and atmospheric pressure".
Note
Most text editors have automatic placement of footnotes and annotation.
Useful advice
Explanatory notes for table place itself at the bottom, above the line indicating the end of the table. Otherwise, make them like the others nutriactive notes.

Advice 7 : How to make links to the thesis

When writing the thesis it is necessary not only to create an appropriate level and theme of the text, but also the right to execute him. For scientific and student's works there is a certain standard the parts of the text, including references.
How to make links to the thesis
Instruction
1
Decide how you want to organize a system of footnotes in the text. They can be placed at the bottom of the page or at the end of the text, after the conclusion. The possible variations with the numbering. It can be through, that is the same for the whole text, or to begin anew after each Chapter. Any of these options is allowed by design standards.
2
For the book mentioned in the text the first time, use the full format description. In this case, first comes the author's name and then his initials. This is followed by the full title of the book, listed beneath the cover. After a point you have to write the city of publication. The name need to write completely with the exception of some common abbreviations: M. - Moscow, SPb. - Sankt-Peterburg, Leningrad - Leningrad. Followed by year of publication and page number or pages, the text from which you quote. Thus, the footnote should appear as: Ivanov, A. A. History of Russia in XIX century. M., 1959. P. 5-6.
3
In the absence of the books of one author, for example, if a collection, begin the footnote with the title of the study. The compiler and editors, if specified, separated by a slash after the title. An example of such a description: a General biology / under the editorship of A. A. Petrov and S. S. Sidorov. M., 1980. P. 56.
4
If you give a few in a row zutat from the same edition, replace the second and subsequent footnotes of the author and the title with the words "There". Example: ibid. P. 76.
5
Links to articles from magazines make with the indication of the periodical title and issue number. This information is given through the slash after the title of the article. In this case, the footnote is as follows - Petrova I. I. problems of chronology of Ancient Rus / Questions of history, Moscow, 1999, №2. P. 7-8.
6
When referencing literature in a foreign language, write the author's name in full, not initials. Also, if the title of the book is given in any language, presumably unknown to the reader, for example, in Japanese, the title and author's name in parentheses to translate.
7
When making references to electronic resources - databases and websites - focus on standards in your school. Currently, the unified rules in the citation of these sources is not, and those that exist are regularly reviewed. Therefore it is best to seek advice from their supervisor.
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