You will need
- Dictionaries Russian-English and English-Russian, reference country study or a textbook on the history and culture of England (America), the dictionary of synonyms.
First, read the text several times and try to understand the General idea. When you do this, underline or write out the word, which translation you don't know: we need to find them in the dictionary and to label. If the word has many meanings, evaluate the context to select the most accurate value. Remember that the most common values are given in the beginning of the article. A figurative meaning or a rare (situational) translation at the end. There are words that can play the role of the various parts of speech (play the game to play - to play).
Don't try to translate every word (word by word). You need to learn to evaluate the syntactic role of words in reading sentences, to see its structure. For the English languageand the characteristic rigid word order: subject - verb - complement - fact (Tom reads a book every day – That reading a book every day), so to determine the part of speech it is not difficult. Looking for familiar structures, for example, there is/are talks about location of something, the phrase is formed like this: There is a book on the table - On the table is a book.
After the text is translated, you should design it in accordance with the rules of the Russian language. For this you need to re-read the translation after some time: you notice inaccuracies, repetition, stylistic errors, violation of logic, constructing phrases, perhaps, even grammatical and spelling errors. Correction text use dictionaries: synonyms, spelling, foreign words, sensible.
Inexperienced translators often try to translate the words that are recorded in the Russian language (anglicisms), and - Vice versa - do not bother to search the Russian equivalent of the English word. The choice here depends on the text and situation. The main thing is to keep the stylistic unity, to avoid actual and semantic errors: for example, satin is often translated as "satin" actually is "Atlas". "Dictionary of false friends of translator" will help you to avoid such mistakes in the work. Words or phrases that contain country-specific information also need to be translated very carefully. The same applies to abbreviations and special terms. For such cases there are special dictionaries that you can use in translation.
Do not type the entire text in electronic dictionary: as a rule, it is inadequate to translate phrases and expressions, not to mention the idioms and conversational words.
If you doubt the accuracy of the found translations, test yourself, using Russian-English dictionary, evaluating the whole synonymic row.