Advice 1: How to calculate the quality of knowledge

Training - educational process oriented on the result. What is the result of education? The arrival of graduates in higher educational institutions, victories and winning students in the contests and competitions of various kinds - these and similar results are visible to all stakeholders. But there are other results which observe and adjust teachers and administration of schools is the attendance of the lessons progress, the quality of students ' knowledge. Intermediate analyzing these results, teachers can adjust visual and obvious achievements of students.
How to calculate the quality of knowledge
To calculate the quality of knowledge, you need to have already exposed for any period of marks in a subject, whether it is test or quadruple the level of an entire classroom group. If the performance is the interest, the picture positive marks (i.e., no deuces), the quality of the knowledge is the number percentage of fours and fives in the class for a certain training period. So, in order to calculate the quality of knowledge count how many fives and fours earned students in the class on this subject during the reporting period. Summarize the four fives in a single result.
Next, find the percentage of quality of knowledge from the General picture of the class on the subject. To do this, make the proportion: the total number of marks is 100 percent, the total number of fives and fours – "x" percent. Solve this proportion, as an ordinary mathematical crosswise: "x" % is equal to the total number of fives and fours multiplied by one hundred percent and divided by the total number of marks. The resulting number is the percentage the picture of quality of knowledge on the subject.
To determine the percentage grade on the subject follow the same steps. With only positive marks. Make the proportion. Solve it and get the review and grade. Sometimes progress is called the level of training of students in the class on any subject.
You can't count as knowledge or performance, if still unknown (for a variety of reasons) the level of at least one student. This result would not be true for a class, the resulting percentage will be higher.
Useful advice
When calculating the percentage of quality of knowledge failed an integer, then the result is rounded according to mathematical laws.

The quality of knowledge can be shown as percentage and number of students. In the latter case, it is enough to sum the number of fives and fours.

Advice 2: How to calculate grades

Teachers do not only conduct lessons and extra-curricular activities, parent meetings and seminars, check notebooks and diaries, but also prepare reports, calculate the percentage of quality of knowledge and level of proficiency. How can one calculate performance?
How to calculate grades
With the calculation of the academic performance of teachers dealing with the analysis carried out control work or at the end of the quarter, year. And the class teacher calculates grades of the class as a whole, for all academic disciplines. Also, the teacher needs to follow the dynamics of performance. The class teacher, in order to calculate the performance of each student, it is necessary to add up the total of "4" and "5" in all academic disciplines and divided by the number of these items.
If you need to calculate achievement by subject, then put the number of students who received "4" and "5" on this subject and divide by the total number of children who graduated without the "twos".
If the teacher wants to use information technology, which is very convenient, you should pay attention to the use of autonomy. You need to create a table with grades for students, calculates the average score for each subject:- in column A enter the data (name, surname) of children enrolled in your class. Take cell A1 for a title, and click with the left mouse button on the cell. Enter last Name in cell A2, A3 etc. Enter the following data students;
- in row 1 columns B, C, and D enter the name of the academic disciplines. Set assessment;
at the end of the table fill in the row "Average score";
in cell B7 enter using the icon Autosome, the following formula =SUM(B2:B6). Split the number of students in the class;
- calculate the same equation data in cells C7 and D7;
- create a chart of student achievement;
print the average score with the help of pie chart.The chart is good to follow the dynamics of performance.

Advice 3: How to calculate the volume of a forest

Build a house or house is rarely complete without the use of lumber. The construction can be used as round woodand boards in different degrees of processing. Rules of sale of timber does not always help to accurately determine the volume of goods purchased. If you have minimal knowledge and skills you can calculate the volume of wood products on their own.
How to calculate the volume of a forest
You will need
  • - cubature table;
  • roulette;
  • calculator;
  • paper;
  • pencil.
Acquiring the timber on a warehouse, inspect a finished package of timber. Sometimes the manufacturer affixes to the prepared for sale the tag, which indicates the exact amount, characteristics and the price of the package. However, such pre-preparation, you can meet not always, most often, the calculations required to own, or to rely on the honesty of the seller.
Determine the type of material the volume of which you want to calculate. In one cubic meter can contain a different number of slabs, edged or unedged boards or round the forest. Calculation of cubic capacity is determined by the degree of processing of wood, its type and grade.
If you need to determine the volume of the slab, sort it by length into two groups: up to two meters and more. Lay the slabs in a stack, to thin and thick ends alternated, and the raw surface was layers up and down. Ensure the same height of the pile throughout its length, angles, and dense stacking. Multiply the average height package width and length; you will receive a so-called share the cubic.
Since the prices of holiday woods must be placed not in the share cubic capacity, and in a dense mass, use to transfer the collected values of a special coefficient. For debarked slabs of length up to two meters it is 0.48; for debarked – 0,56.
Use to determine the volume of material from coniferous and deciduous breeds the so-called subatomic, which is an approved standard, made in the form of tables with volumes of one piece of lumber.
The volume of round timber determine not with the use of conversion factors in a tight measure, and by measuring each log. For example, the beam has a diameter of 0.18 m and length 6 m. the Volume of the log will be in this case is about 0,194 cubic meters, multiply This value by the number of logs in the pile to obtain the required volume of the entire party forest.

Advice 4: How to count the number of printed sheets

In the old literature on printing, the term "printed sheet" is not uncommon. He is now almost out of use. In journalism, publishing and other sectors, has long been considered to be the number of text characters. Western and some Russian publishing houses as units often use the number of words or the author's list. However, sometimes you need to count the number of printed sheets in any publication.
How to count the number of printed sheets
You will need
  • - the actual size of the printing sheet;
  • - the number of pages in the publication;
  • - the size of the conditional printed sheet:
  • - the range;
  • calculator.
Conditional printed sheet is considered to be a sheet format 70x90 cm Conventional newspaper and magazine formats is a multiple of the printed sheet. For example, A2 is a half of the standard unit, A3 — a quarter, and A4 — eighth part. These formats are in widespread use today. However, book and magazine pages can have other dimensions. In addition, modern printing technology allows to put on the same square, different amount of text because you can apply different pins and different layout options.
Calculate the actual area of the page is exactly the same as you would for any rectangle. Measure and multiply the length and width. It is possible to write ordinary mathematical formula S1=a*b, where S1 is the area existing in the reality of the strips a and b are the length and width. Similarly, calculate the area of the printing sheet, multiplying 70 cm 90. 6 turns out 300 cm2. For convenience, it can be denoted as S2.
Find the conversion factor for this edition. It represents the ratio of the actual book pages or newspaper pages to the area of the conventional printing sheet. Find the equation for k=S1/S2. The obtained result is sufficient to round to hundredths.
Count the number of printed sheets in the entire edition. Count the number of book pages or newspaper pages. Multiply the resulting number by a factor of k. This method of calculation is convenient for publications, typed in a standard font on a sheet with the same formatting standard.
Useful advice
With the advent of computer technology prepress method of calculation of the texts printed sheets became very inaccurate. About 90 years it was believed that the ordinary newspaper page A3 holds about 16 thousand characters. And then I often was not more than 13 thousand. Modern newspaper page is the same format most often contains from 6 to 10 thousand characters, and sometimes less. Therefore, to determine the volume of the printed sheet is rarely used.

Much more accurate is another old unit of measure — author's sheet. He succeeds primarily because it is considered not from the area, and by the number of characters that allows you to measure virtually any text. In the author's sheet contains 40 000 characters with no spaces. For the poetic text, this 700 rows. In principle, this method differs little from those now used in most newsrooms, publishing houses and translation agencies.
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