Advice 1: How to make a ladder to the second floor

The staircase in the house should be beautiful, comfortable, functional. So before you do the stairs to the second floor, it is necessary to think well, where it is located. Best suited hallway. There Lustica on the second floor will look appropriate.
How to make a ladder to the second floor
Instruction
1
A simple wooden ladder can be done independently. However, first it is necessary to carefully calculate everything and make a mock-up staircase out of paper. In this case, will be less likely to make a mistake.
The ladder consists of several main parts. This steps, risers, stringer and the handrail or the railing. The bowstring, which is also called the stringer, it is a carrier Board that holds the rest of the design. Its strength depends on the strength of the entire stairs and the safety of the people who will be on it to rise.
How to make a ladder to the second floor
2
Prior to the design of lestnicy need to choose the height, width, and the width and height of the steps. This is important.
The first parameter that we need to know is the height of the stairs. It is necessary then from this figure to calculate the height of the riser. No need to make it too high, otherwise it will be uncomfortable to walk. The optimum height for lifting is equal to approximately 150-160 mm. Stage should not be too narrow. Their average width shall be at best 350 mm, and in the worst - 250mm.
After everything is clear with the height and width, it is necessary to find a foothold for the future home of the stairs. After that you must attach the stringer to the porch, and to the beam. apotom you can start to cut treads. Thus it is necessary to remember about podstupenej take them into account.
How to make a ladder to the second floor
3
When stair risers are mounted, you can mount the stage with the help of special screws. Then there is a handrail or banister. Railings should be high enough to ensure safety - not less than 900 mm.
Now it is possible to paint the stairs. Paint not only gives the staircase a presentable look, but also protect the tree from damage. You can use oil paint, lacquer for wood surfaces - oil-resin or bezmasljanye. Also suitable nitrocellulose lacquer. If done correctly, a staircase will last for many years.
How to make a ladder to the second floor
Note
Cheapest way to do stairs in the house of wood of deciduous breeds. But stronger will be a staircase made of oak.

Advice 2: How to make second floor

Before proceeding to the superstructure of the second floor, you need to weigh the pros and cons. As practice shows, the new construction is to be done easier than the remake already finished. So it's easier to build a new house than to rebuild the existing single storey house. In addition, the second floor doubles the challenge: installation of floor, walls, ceiling and roof will need to do at altitude. Harder and delivery of materials from the ground to the second floor. If you did not stop - start construction.
How to make second floor
Instruction
1
At the stage of initial construction of the house plan in advance that in the future it will continue. Roof structure is just so that truss system reserved space for the device the second floor (mansard type).
2
Wooden bars 50x50mm and 50х100мм make the frame. To do this, sew them nailed to the vertical posts of the trusses. Outside, from the attic, panel lining, waterproof sealing, and secure the insulation. Inside lay the vapour-barrier foil, make a crate and screws fasten it to the drywall sheets.
3
Then mount the ceiling. For the convenience of the work undertaken and part of the roof it is desirable to remove. The ends of the floor beams attach to the upright trusses. With the lower edge of the reinforce bars are 50x50mm and place them on the Board floor. On Board lay the layers on top of vapor barrier film, a layer of insulation, waterproofing. Hem the bottom of the ceiling sheets of drywall or plywood. External, removed roof replace on.
4
Now you need to make the natural lighting of the second floor. To do this in the front make the window opening, and insulate the wall from the attic. If the light is not enough, you can also make a roof lantern type over an alleged second window. You need to do the roof gap vertically with width of 100-120cm. The height of the gap provide at 40-50cm from the ceiling of the attic. In the wall make the window opening.
5
Make the floor the same way as was done with floor the first floor. The only difference is that on the second floor subfloor is not spreading. At the final stage determine the installation location and design of stairsthat will connect the first floor and attic. To save the occupied area, use the spiral staircase.
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