Advice 1: How to mix cement

To provide connectivity of natural stone, brick or concrete blocks are used mineral binding materials. By adding water, they become after drying, the solid rock, firmly linking the used in construction materials. Binders and mineral materials are widely used in bricklaying, ceramic tiles, concrete buildings, walkways, driveways. The primary binder material is cement.
How to mix cement
You will need
  • For mixing cement or mortar you will need: cement, sand, clay, water, a large metal container or mechanical mixer, shovel, hoe and gardening.
Consider the most commonly used binding materials – cement. It is a key element of building solutions and a variety of concrete mixes. The positive qualities of cementare its strength and quick drying. Cement is divided into two types: aluminous and Portlandcement. The characteristics of aluminous cementand include: heat resistance, fast drying and high water resistance. Basically this group is used in the construction industry. For private construction are used in various brands of Portlandcements. Classification of the grades of cementand it happens at fortress by hardening and can be: low-grade – below 300,the so-called ordinary - 300-400. Brand 500 belongs to the category of high fortress, and 500-600 to vysokotlake. It is not difficult to determine visually the fortress cement. The darker it is, the stronger it is. In everyday life all brands of cementand called the cement, and Portlandcementω is called a cement of high grade (500-600).Features marking cementand: PTS or M - Portlandcement;
D 0 - cement without additives;
D 20 - a cement containing 20% additives;
B - rapid-hardening cement;
N - cement based on clinker composition normalized (normalized cement);
Shpts - seaportercement;
PL - plasticization of cement.
For making cementtion of the solution you need to find out for what purpose it will be used: for brick masonry, to fill the walkways at the house, to plaster the walls. For bricklaying you need a solution in the ratio of 1 to 4, it is necessary to take and fill the container 1 bucket of cementand 4 buckets of sand. Take a garden hoe and dry mix ingredients in layers, mixing hoe mix every 5 centimeters. Mix to obtain a homogeneous mixture. Then add a little water, stir, add water until the solution becomes viscous and sticky. Its consistency should be as thick semolina. Now you can safely seal them with bricks.
To prepare the solution to fill the garden paths make a solution with the ratio 1: 3, ie 1 bucket of cementand 3 buckets of sand. Stir in dry form a hoe, then add water until the solution is a liquid like cream. Pour this solution into a pre-prepared formwork, breaking it into squares thin boards. If you're gonna track a single monolith, it will soon crack. After approximately 2 hours prepare the cementing milk. To do this, take the cement, add water until until it becomes like milk. Pour this milk on the carpet and DAB with a brush. This process is called "zheleznenie", the path will become gray-green and very strong on the surface. For zashtukaturivat walls enough solution to make a 1-to-5 in the consistency of liquid semolina.
When working with cement try to not hit the Airways! When working in solution, wear rubber gloves as the cement is very dry hands.
Useful advice
If you want to get a plastic solution,you can add one part clay.

Advice 2: What kind of cement needed for bricklaying

The strength of building a house depends not only on what brick is used, or where load-bearing walls. A lot depends on the cement used in laying brick. To identify the quality of cement and to determine the components that best fit, is not a problem. It is important to approach this issue comprehensively and responsibly.
Cement for bricklaying
Cement mortar can be used not only for the formation of masonry, but also for plastering, filling part of the bearings and even for decoration. For all of these pick the appropriate quality and composition of the list of components. In the solution there: sand, cement and water. Added to a solution of the corresponding plasticizer, if circumstances so require, for example weather conditions or construction time.
Choose quality sand. Take only river sand with a grain size of up to 2 mm, but without the fine and clay inclusions. If there is no other option other than career or ravine, its screening or wash to get rid of the fine fraction. The mortar of the brick should not contain clay inclusions, this is only necessary for plaster to achieve smoothness. Check out what's in the sand no foreign bodies, especially such as the remains of plants or can eventually rot or decompose: paper, wood, grass, coal, plastic, any other debris.
Use only fresh and tested cement. Stale cement inevitably picks up moisture, it loses its binding properties. Only large wholesale or professional shops with storage rooms is able to offer a suitable product. Check out the quality of cement, just clenched the message in his fist. Quality and dry cement will "leak" through your fingers. If it shrinks into a ball and does not break, the cement should be avoided. Check the cement for the presence of lumps or stones. If any cement is already damp. For masonry suitable Portland cement grade 400.
Only take clean drinking water for preparation of cement mortar or concrete. The quality and purity of the water depends on the strength of the solution and the quality of the coupling of cement and sand. If the water has been contaminated by oil or it is too mineralized, it will eventually affect the strength and appearance of the cement. In any case do not take water from open water bodies such as rivers, lakes or ponds.
The consistency of cement mortar. When mixing the mortar follow the recipe and weigh the ingredients. The consistency of the solution for forming the brickwork should match the consistency of wet soil, i.e., not spread, but not to crumble. Put a lump of mortar on a flat, dry surface. It should not form a puddle of spilled excess water. It should not crumble or spill in the form of blots. The lump should settle down, about a third, but leave its shape. If this occurs, the cement slurry suitable for forming brick.

Advice 3: How to make cement mortar

At first glance, the technology of preparation of the cement solutionand seems is extremely simple – just mix together the cement, sand and water. In fact, this process requires accuracy and care, as the correct ratio of ingredients and thorough mixing depends on the quality of the resulting concrete, and poor quality of cement can cause cracking and even destruction of the structure.
How to make cement mortar

Recipes of cement mortar

Before you begin cooking the mixture, you need to know the exact recipe for your purpose. The cement slurry used to fill the floors, to set Foundation, stucco walls, masonry brick. Each of these steps requires different ratios of ingredients of the solution, although in all cases use the same materials: the cement, sand and water, in some cases, add gravel or lime. In each case, required a particular brand of cement.
Grade of cement refers to the ability of a mixture to withstand a load in compression, the figure of the brand is measured in kilograms per centimeter squared.

For cement-sand floor screed above the required cement grade 400, silica sand and water. The proportion of cement and sand may be 1: 2.8 or 1 to 3, 10 kg of the cement requires 5 liters of water. It is also desirable to use a plasticizer, which facilitates the work with the mixture solution becomes strong, but supple and easy, and in a concrete screed subsequently does not appear cracked.

For the Foundation requires cement above 200, in addition to sand and water used gravel or crushed stone. The ideal ratio of cement, sand and gravel – 1:3:3 or 1:4:4.
It is very important that the solution is not extraneous impurities – soil, oils, herbs.

For plaster it is advisable to take sand, cement grade 100 or more, you can also use additives, such as lime or clay. The ratio of cement and sand is one to five, one part lime or clay. Water the mixture should be diluted to a liquid consistency.

For brick masonry bearing enough cement grade 25, for curtain walls and partitions – M10 with less strength. The ratio of sand and cement can be different from 1:3 to 1:6 depending on the brand and requirements for the solution. Water this requires 0.8 parts per one part of cement-sand mixture.

The technology of preparation of cement mortar

Manual manufacturing of cement is suitable for small volumes, for example, repair of urban apartments. It is very important to mix the cement and sand in dry form and then dilute them with water. Prepare the necessary tools and capacity: large quantities can be stirred with a shovel, a little with a spatula. Pour into a bowl, bucket or other container of sand and cement in the right proportions and blend them. Then you can add water, preferably in batches and not all at once, to not make the mortar too thin. Mix thoroughly, adding water until, until the solution become homogenous.

If you want to pour the Foundation, make a screed floor or to build load-bearing walls of brick, it is desirable to use the mixer. Place the unit on a level surface, turn on the mixer – only with a rotating drum it is possible to fill the ingredients. Fill materials should be according to the degree of reduction of their density: first, cement, then sand, then gravel, and recent flood water.
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