# Advice 1: How to count printed sheets

The printed sheet is a conditional unit to measure the volume of the book, the modern book and newspaper and magazine business used very rarely. In journalism it is customary to calculate amount of text in thousands of characters, and in book publishing - in the author's sheets (and some publishing houses oriented on Western standards - the number of words). However, for reference information that a printed sheet and as calculated, will not hurt.
You will need
• the page size of the publication;
• - the size of the conditional printed sheet;
• - the number of pages in the publication;
• calculator.
Instruction
1
Conditional printed sheet is 90 cm long and 70 cm wide. The printed sheet is also attached newspaper formats, known since Soviet times: A2, A3, A4, A5 (the first two are used in practice mainly Newspapers, the last two mags).
In the Soviet and post-Soviet times in A2 format (that is, one page is equal to half of the printed sheet came out and continue to publish such editions as "True" or "Literary Gazette", A3 - "Arguments and facts").
To calculate the number of printed sheets is used, the ratio of the area of the publication to its size.
2
So, to calculate the volume of publications in the printed sheets, you will need baseline data on the length and width of the page (or, as they say in the publishing business, band). Multiply the length of the strip in its width. The result of this arithmetic is the area of one strip. For example, to publications with a bandwidth of 20 cm and a length of 30 cm is 600 sq cm
3
The area of the printing sheet to calculate too easy. Just multiply 70 by 90 and the output will get a 6300 sq cm
4
Now we need to know how does the volume of the printed sheet. The area page of the publication divide by the area of the printing sheet. For the case above, this ratio is approximately 0,095.
5
Now multiply the number of pages of the publication on the obtained ratio. For 100 pages, size 20 by 30 cm have a coefficient of 0,095 multiplied by 100. It turns out that 100 pages of the specified size is 9.5 in the printed sheet.
Note
Due to the active use of modern printing different fonts and graphical elements design of printed sheet can contain different amount of text.

In General, a modern global trend in journalism and book publishing aims to reduce the amount of text on the band is more pronounced than in former times, the presence of design elements. This, for example, various infographics: tables, charts, graphs. Or offsets - striking quotes from the main text, placed on the strip from the body of notes, usually in a larger font.

In the 90-ies of the last century it was believed that newspaper page A3 holds about 16 thousand characters of continuous text in a standard font. Due to the titles, subtitles and illustrations it really breaks and then less. Now one page of a modern newspaper usually contains not more than 6 thousand characters.

To assess the amount of it is text book-use different unit of measure - author's sheet, with exactly 40 thousand characters with spaces or 700 lines of poetic text. Volume in the author's worksheets in the field often plays the role of a unit of measure of the fee of the author, editor or translator. There are also payment options for the word or 1 thousand characters with spaces or without.
In Newspapers and magazines fees usually are laid out over a thousand characters with spaces (sometimes without) at the end of the month. However, there are other payment options. For example, in many Western-oriented standards of the Russian media means that the full-time journalist, salaried, must prepare for a month at least a certain amount of text or number of publications. However, abroad to meet these standards not only for the lazy. If you exceed the same minimum standards additional payments often don't rely.

In the author's leaves are also considered illustrations. One author's sheet is equal to 3 sq cm of drawings, cartoons, photos, etc. But all this is usually paid by the piece.

# Advice 2: How to count the number of printed sheets

In the old literature on printing, the term "printed sheet" is not uncommon. He is now almost out of use. In journalism, publishing and other sectors, has long been considered to be the number of text characters. Western and some Russian publishing houses as units often use the number of words or the author's list. However, sometimes you need to count the number of printed sheets in any publication.
You will need
• - the actual size of the printing sheet;
• - the number of pages in the publication;
• - the size of the conditional printed sheet:
• - the range;
• calculator.
Instruction
1
Conditional printed sheet is considered to be a sheet format 70x90 cm Conventional newspaper and magazine formats is a multiple of the printed sheet. For example, A2 is a half of the standard unit, A3 — a quarter, and A4 — eighth part. These formats are in widespread use today. However, book and magazine pages can have other dimensions. In addition, modern printing technology allows to put on the same square, different amount of text because you can apply different pins and different layout options.
2
Calculate the actual area of the page is exactly the same as you would for any rectangle. Measure and multiply the length and width. It is possible to write ordinary mathematical formula S1=a*b, where S1 is the area existing in the reality of the strips a and b are the length and width. Similarly, calculate the area of the printing sheet, multiplying 70 cm 90. 6 turns out 300 cm2. For convenience, it can be denoted as S2.
3
Find the conversion factor for this edition. It represents the ratio of the actual book pages or newspaper pages to the area of the conventional printing sheet. Find the equation for k=S1/S2. The obtained result is sufficient to round to hundredths.
4
Count the number of printed sheets in the entire edition. Count the number of book pages or newspaper pages. Multiply the resulting number by a factor of k. This method of calculation is convenient for publications, typed in a standard font on a sheet with the same formatting standard.
With the advent of computer technology prepress method of calculation of the texts printed sheets became very inaccurate. About 90 years it was believed that the ordinary newspaper page A3 holds about 16 thousand characters. And then I often was not more than 13 thousand. Modern newspaper page is the same format most often contains from 6 to 10 thousand characters, and sometimes less. Therefore, to determine the volume of the printed sheet is rarely used.

Much more accurate is another old unit of measure — author's sheet. He succeeds primarily because it is considered not from the area, and by the number of characters that allows you to measure virtually any text. In the author's sheet contains 40 000 characters with no spaces. For the poetic text, this 700 rows. In principle, this method differs little from those now used in most newsrooms, publishing houses and translation agencies.

# Advice 3: How to calculate the volume of a forest

Build a house or house is rarely complete without the use of lumber. The construction can be used as round woodand boards in different degrees of processing. Rules of sale of timber does not always help to accurately determine the volume of goods purchased. If you have minimal knowledge and skills you can calculate the volume of wood products on their own.
You will need
• - cubature table;
• roulette;
• calculator;
• paper;
• pencil.
Instruction
1
Acquiring the timber on a warehouse, inspect a finished package of timber. Sometimes the manufacturer affixes to the prepared for sale the tag, which indicates the exact amount, characteristics and the price of the package. However, such pre-preparation, you can meet not always, most often, the calculations required to own, or to rely on the honesty of the seller.
2
Determine the type of material the volume of which you want to calculate. In one cubic meter can contain a different number of slabs, edged or unedged boards or round the forest. Calculation of cubic capacity is determined by the degree of processing of wood, its type and grade.
3
If you need to determine the volume of the slab, sort it by length into two groups: up to two meters and more. Lay the slabs in a stack, to thin and thick ends alternated, and the raw surface was layers up and down. Ensure the same height of the pile throughout its length, angles, and dense stacking. Multiply the average height package width and length; you will receive a so-called share the cubic.
4
Since the prices of holiday woods must be placed not in the share cubic capacity, and in a dense mass, use to transfer the collected values of a special coefficient. For debarked slabs of length up to two meters it is 0.48; for debarked – 0,56.
5
Use to determine the volume of material from coniferous and deciduous breeds the so-called subatomic, which is an approved standard, made in the form of tables with volumes of one piece of lumber.
6
The volume of round timber determine not with the use of conversion factors in a tight measure, and by measuring each log. For example, the beam has a diameter of 0.18 m and length 6 m. the Volume of the log will be in this case is about 0,194 cubic meters, multiply This value by the number of logs in the pile to obtain the required volume of the entire party forest.
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