Advice 1: How to calculate standard units

In the legislation of the Russian Federation stated that the monetary obligations of enterprises must be expressed in rubles. It is allowed to use in the contracts the concept of "conditional units", which are pegged to foreign currency. As a result, the calculations are performed in rubles based on the current exchange rates.
How to calculate standard units
Examine the terms of the contract, which uses conventional units. Mandatory to the agreement should be binding is specified in foreign currency. For example, 1.e. = 1 us dollar or 1.e. = (1 EUR + 2%). On the basis of this value and the current rate of exchange is the allocation unit in the ruble equivalent.
Receive from the contractor an invoice for goods delivered, services rendered or work performed in accordance with the terms of the contract. While in the tax legislation there are no clear rules for how the currency should be issued this document. If the contract payment is made in conventional units, it would be wise to specify them. The VAT is calculated in rubles at the date of shipment. For this, the tax base, expressed in arbitrary units and transferred foreign currency under the terms of the contract and is recalculated into rubles at the official exchange rates of the national Bank of the Russian Federation.
Reflect the amount in the sales book and purchases at the date of the invoice in the ruble equivalent at the exchange rate of the national Bank of the Russian Federation. For example, the invoice on March 10 the sum of 10.e. the dollar was on this day 30 rubles, and the conditions of the contract 1.e. = $ 1. In this case, the tax base on the account is 300 rubles, i.e. 10 multiplied by 30.
Define exchange rate differences, which arose due to payment of the invoice not the invoice date. For example, if in the above example, the buyer paid the bill on March 20, when the official dollar exchange rate was 29 rubles, there is a negative exchange rate difference, which is equal to 10.e. multiplied by the 29 rubles minus 300 rubles. The result is a minus 10 rubles. If this number is negative, the system calculates the VAT, and if positive, it is determined additional tax payable.

Advice 2 : How to calculate the dollar

Many people periodically encounter the need to convert their savings into dollars. Some people need it for an overseas trip, someone- for more convenient storage of tools, and someone does and gets paid in dollars. Everyone who has this currency is something, interested in the same question: how to calculate the exchange rate of the dollar?
How to calculate the dollar
You will need
  • calculator, currency Converter
Calculate how many dollars will match your ruble savings, you can own. For this on the Internet, on television or from information stands of any Bank know what the rate of dollar today. For example on 05.07.2011 year the exchange rate of the dollar against the ruble equal 27.8037, and you wish to convert in the $ 1,000 Russian rubles. For this, armed with a calculatorohms, divide 1000 by 27.8037, in the end we will get 35,9, that is how much you will receive by exchanging your thousand. If you want to reverse the procedure, i.e. to translate dollars into rubles, you need to multiply the number of available money you have in a number equal to the rate ofthe dollar. For example, the$ 50 will be leveled 1390 RUB. (50 must be multiplied by 27.8037).
If you do not wish to make calculations independently, please contact the Bank. Before producing your currency exchange, they are required to report how much money you get in the end. If the current rate of the dollar does not suit you, you have the right to abandon the operation. In many modern cell phones have built-in currency converters. Using them is as simple as online converters on the Internet, but there is one caveat - you need a program to update, if the phone is not connected to the Internet, the data will be outdated, and the course of the dollar is very unstable and can change every day or even more often.
You can use another, perhaps the most convenient way: of the program Converter. Such a program can easily find on the Internet for "currency Converter". Simply choose the desired currency, for example, from rubles to dollars, enter the amount in the special window, click "Translate" and get the result.
Useful advice
If you go to change currency, don't want to go to a few different banks, the exchange rates, they are insignificant, but to vary, it is in your best interest to choose more favorable.

Advice 3 : What does a suspended sentence

Imprisonment for a certain period of time, the people called the conclusion, is used as criminal punishment in almost all countries of the world. The conclusion can be real or virtual.
In the court room
A conditional sentence is not quite accurate. Lawyers speak in such cases of postponement of execution. However, the very condemnation is quite real: the court renders a guilty verdict, recognizing the defendant guilty, and even appoints punishment in the form of imprisonment. But in the execution of the sentence is not given.

A convict is assigned a probationary period. The duration is also determined by the court, but it is less than the term of imprisonment that a convict has been assigned. If any of the crimes and offenses not commit, a conviction will be extinguished, man is free. If he during the trial period will once again embarrass itself, a crime – not necessarily the same, for which he was convicted – probation turn into a real man will go to the places of deprivation of liberty.

Who appoint probation

The law does not specify who can appoint punishment in the form of probation, and who can not. There is no direct relationship and type of crime, but less than the consequences of the act of the accused, the more chances he has to get just a suspended sentence. So, people who committed petty theft are more likely to be a suspended sentence than a murderer or a rapist.

Consider the court and the identity of the accused. Even if the crime does not belong to the category of serious, the man has little chance to get probation, if he has in the past been brought to trial. A conditional sentence is intended primarily for accidentally stumbling of a man who regrets his deeds and sincerely desire never to commit unlawful acts.

Without limiting the range of offences for which it may be imposed a suspended sentence, the law will determine what penalties can be conditional. It is not only imprisonment, but also corrective work, the maintenance in disciplinary military unit and restrictions on military service. Imprisonment may not be suspended, if the appointed time is more than 8 years.

Responsibilities conditionally convicted

A convict on probation subject to certain restrictions. He is under the supervision of the criminal-Executive inspection and obliged to be there, if his cause, and to report, as he performs the duties assigned to him by the court.

Responsibilities these are determined by the specific situation. For example, if a person has committed a crime in a condition of alcoholic or narcotic intoxication, the court may order him to be treated for alcoholism or drug addiction. If he did something to someone a material damage, it may be required the damage to reimburse by a certain date.

If the convict decided to change their place of residence, place of work or study, he is obliged to inform the criminal-Executive inspection. To go abroad it is forbidden for him.

The main requirement for conditionally convicted person not to commit any illegal actions. Otherwise he faces a real imprisonment.
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