Advice 1: How to determine how many sounds in the word

The number of sounds in words of the Russian language is not always equal to the number of letters. To determine how many sounds in the word, you must follow a specific sequence of actions.
How to determine how many sounds in the word
You will need
  • paper
  • handle
Instruction
1
Write the word in which you need to determine the number of sounds. For example, the word "solder".
2
Stranscript that word. In order to properly write a transcription, learn a few rules. First, the letter "ü", "y" never represent a separate sound, but only indicate the hardness or softness of the preceding sound. The word "solder" the letter "ü" indicates that the sound [t'] is soft. The softness in the transcription is indicated with an apostrophe.
3
The letter "e", "e", "Yu", "ya" after a soft consonant respectively denote the sounds [e], [o], [y], [a]. The letter "I" always denotes the sound [and].
4
The letter "e", "e", "Yu", "I" at the beginning of words or after a vowel sound represent two sounds: corresponding vowel and the sound [j] ("Yot"). Therefore, the word "solder" after the sound [a] email [ja].
5
In unstressed syllables after a consonant in the Russian language can be pronounced with the following vowels: [a], [], [y], [y] ("er"), [s] ("Eph"). Vowels of the syllable coming before the shock (the first pretonic syllable), denoted respectively [a] (the letter "a" or "o") and [] (the letter "I" or "e") or []. Other pretonic vowels and sardarni syllables are denoted as [s] ("Eph") – after soft consonants or [y] after hard consonants.
6
Write the transcription in its entirety. Do not forget to specify the softness of the soft consonants. In the case of the word "solder", the transcription would appear as follows: [PR ipaat'].
7
Now count the sounds in the transcription. In this case, their 8, that is, the same as letters.
Note
"er" and "er" is the so - called "regulirovanie vowels". In connected speech we do not pronounce them clearly, so in the transcription they have no separate symbols. In the first pretonic syllable, we always pronounce the vowel sound clearly. For example, the word "milk" we pronounce as follows: [myliko]. The sound [y] is pronounced and marked in the transcription as [y] in any syllable.

Advice 2 : How to make a transcription

Transcription reflects on the letter sounding speech and enables you to show the rules of correct pronunciation. The same letter represents several sounds, so phonetic writing is very different from spelling. There are a few rules of transcription to learn that students and their parents.
How to make a transcription
You will need
  • - notebook;
  • - handle.
Instruction
1
Enclose the transcribed word or phrase in square brackets. During the transcription of the text to signify a short pause, use one vertical stroke, at the end of phrases and during long pauses the two vertical lines. In words with more than one syllable, put an accent.
2
To indicate vowel sounds use letters [a], [], [], [], [e], [s]. Often the question arises how to make the transcription of words with unstressed sound [o]. Make a note in the transcription of unstressed "o" sound [a], for example, beard [brad a].
3
The letters e, e, u, I indicate in the transcription as [e], [o], [moron.], [ja], if they stand at the beginning of words, after a soft or hard token or after a vowel as in the word anchor [j Akar’]. Remember that the consonants before these vowels are softened, and before a vowel sound [and]. The sound [j] disappears - transcription of the word "gloss" looks like this: [GL"an ETS]. To indicate the softness of consonants use the apostrophe, which write to the right of the soft letters.
4
Consider the fact that consonants in words can sonatica or opasatica, depending on the following sound, for example, tub – [K Atka], but kit – [CAD abalone]. Remember that always voiced consonants become voiceless at the end of words, so the words mushroom and tooth latest sound write as [p].
5
A long consonant mark a horizontal line over a letter or a colon ([K a a], [K AC:a]). The letter u in the transcription indicate: [W‘:].
6
If a preposition, a particle or Union pronounce with the wordm together, and to indicate the phonetic transcription of the word as a whole: under the mountain [padg Ouro], school [ICSC Ola].
7
The ability to do and understand the transcription may be useful to you when reading encyclopedias and dictionaries, especially if you have doubts about the correct pronunciation of Russian words.
Is the advice useful?
Search