Advice 1: How to calculate the wiring

Before you begin the installation of the new wiring, you must first calculate the load on the network for the input cable and the wiring in the apartment or house. This is necessary in order to choose the right cross section of wires for electrical wiring and circuit breakers the right of naminal.
Installation of electrical
You will need
  • Calculator.
The load for the apartment is calculated as follows. Calculates the total capacity of the appliances that will be included in one branch of wiring, ie in those sockets that are connected to one common wire coming from the panel. Take a reference on the electrics and on the table to determine the size wire needed..
If it is not at hand, then can be calculated using the following formula. Current consumption of electrical appliances is calculated as;
I = P / U
Where I is the load current; P - power; U - voltage.

You can use a simplified calculation

I = 4 × P

Only in this formula, the capacity is calculated in kW, not watts as in the previous one.
Next is calculated the necessary diameter of wire:
d = k×I + 0,005
d - wire diameter in mm;

k - constant coefficient, for copper it is equal to 0,034.
But as in the trading network of the wire measured in the cross sectional area, then:
S = 0?785 * d2
where S is the cross - sectional area of the wire.
For example, at the same time included in the network appliances with a total capacity of 2.8 kW.

Load current: I = P / U = 2800 / 220 =12,7 And
d = k ×I + 0,005 = 0,034 ×12,7 + 0,005 = 0,5 mm

S = 0,785 × d2 = 0,785×0,52 = 0.2 mm2
To calculate the input cable, you need to calculate the total load power, and

on the same principle of calculation, as indicated above.
So you can roughly calculate the required cross-section of electrical wire, as they say in the eye. Based on the fact that copper wire is chosen based on S = 1 mm2 I = 10 A. Aluminum wire) S= 1 mm2, for a current = 8 A.
But in most cases, the installation of electrics based on the fact that the outlet wire is 2.5 mm2, and lighting - 1.5 mm2.

Advice 2 : How to solve problems in accounting

The study of accounting generally involves both theoretical and practical classes. The solution of problems on accounting allows a deeper understanding of this discipline and to acquire the skills that will be useful in further professional activities.
How to solve problems in accounting
You will need
  • - the condition of the problem;
  • calculator;
  • - paper and pen;
  • the chart of accounts.
Learn theoretical information that may be useful to you in solving problems in accounting. Understand the basic principles and concepts, understand what constitutes assets and liabilities, double entry system, what types of transactions exist and how they differ from each other. Refer to the main forms of financial statements, primarily the balance sheet.
Learn to use the "chart of accounts". Often novice accountants and students studying this specialty, there are difficulties in the preparation of accounting entries, so it is important to understand the difference between synthetic and analytical account, learn how to determine the offsetting accounts.
After receiving the problem statement, read it carefully and think of a solution. If you are required to make journal entries that draw the so-called "planes" for each account involved in business transactions. This way of tackling the task of accounting no wonder so popular: it clearly demonstrates the principle of double entry and allows you to understand enters or leaves the property, or stop experiencing obligations.
If to solve the task it is necessary to make some form of financial statements, review the order and rules of its filling. This information can be found in the relevant provisions and orders of the Ministry of Finance (for example, PBU 4/99 "Accounting statements of organizations") and in textbooks on accounting.
In case of any difficulty sort similar problems in the textbook, or use collections of type "10000 accounting entries". A good tool for studying accounting may be the so-called end-to-end task, i.e. the examples of accounting in the conventional organization. Options through the problems with solutions you can find on the Internet, and also tutorials on accounting or work in the program "1C: Accounting".
Regularly visit specialized portals or forums for accountants on the Internet, e.g.,, There you will find a lot of useful information that will help you in solving tasks and will be able to consult with experienced accountants.

Advice 3 : How to choose a cross-section of the transaction

Among the most frequent causes of fire areas fire brigade called faulty wiring. To protect yourself further from such unwanted "surprise", you should understand how important choosing the right electrical cable.
How to choose a cross-section of the transaction
You will need
  • - computer with Internet access;
  • - reference tables;
  • paper;
  • - handle.
To make the correct choice of conductor cross-section, define first the most significant factors for electrical installation. For example, you navigate a short chain with a heavy load – so the determining factor will be the choice of the cross section in terms of heating. If, on the contrary, laid line has a greater length and small load – it is advisable to consider its mechanical strength and magnitude of the voltage losses.
Keep in mind that although aluminum wires are cheaper, but, unlike copper, have a number of disadvantages: oxidize in the air, have limited flexibility. In addition, the conductivity of aluminum cable than copper and, therefore, with the same characteristics, the latter will have a smaller cross section, which is important for outdoor wiring.
Before you make a final choice, remember to consider all the electrical appliances that will connect to the mains. Better if the cable is to have a small reserve of power. This will give you the opportunity to continue to connect additional electrical equipment.
When calculating wire size always deviate in a big way. For example, you need to find a section of copper wire to connect the appliance with a power of 4kW. Look in the reference table size is 5kW and will receive the nominal value equal to 1.5 square millimeters. But as it is always better to take the cable off, so the best sectionin your case would be 2.5 mm2.
How to choose a section <b>transactions</b>
Sometimes to select the wire size electricians equate every square millimeter to 10 amps.
Useful advice
Calculating the cable section, use the appropriate tables or online calculators, but consider the material of conductors rated current network, method of laying, and environmental conditions. For example, cables laid in pipes, will be stronger to heat up and, therefore, they must have a larger cross section than the wire with the open method of wiring.
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