Add a large resistance to achieve a significant voltage drop. Use the damping resistor, it can be purchased in specialized departments or to collect yourself. However, the use of so-called damping resistor, as resistance leads to a nonsensical allocation of it capacity.
For AC systems use reactive damping impedances, usually capacitors, so the capacitor power supply.
In addition to lower voltage circuit without transformer, you can use thyristor regulators. Typically, use ready-made controllers to collect yourself is almost pointless), an electronic circuit which allows you to change the input to the load output with controlled turn-on delay of the thyristor half cycle of the alternating current.
Advice 2: How to lower voltage
If the voltage in the network exceeds the permissible limits, or simply unstable, in these cases it makes sense to try to lower it. For this purpose the best suitable transformer, but if you don't have it, then you can try to do it with improvised means.
You will need
- In order to lower the voltage, you'll need the damping resistor, the damping reactive impedances, thyristor regulators.
In order to obtain a significant voltage drop, you need to add a lot of resistance. Try to use this damping resistor. This device can be purchased at specialty stores, but you can collect yourself. But it must be remembered that the use of such a damping resistor, it is meaningless, a large amount of power.
If you need to lower voltage in AC systems, try to use jet quenching impedances. In conjunction with the usual condenser get the real capacitor in the power supply.
Voltage circuit without transformer can be lowered by means of a thyristor regulators. Assemble your own at home them pointless, so better to buy ready-made at a specialty store. Their electronic circuit due to the fact that on the half cycle AC you can control the delay of the thyristor, can significantly change the power supplied to the load.
If you need to reduce the voltage supply in the circuits with variable and constant current, in this case, proceed as follows. In series connect the Zener, microbore stabilizer or instead you can connect a switching Converter. The second device should be performed based on the necessary degree of lowering of the supply voltage. All of the above electronic devices work the same way as semiconductors. From this it follows that to use them better if you have a certain range of knowledge in the field of electronics.
Advice 3: How to lower current
Many appliances are designed for a certain (maximum) value of the force of the current. If the current exceeds the allowable value, such equipment can fail. To lower the current a few simple methods, consisting in a series connection with the load is active or passive (ballasting) resistors.
You will need
- automotive filament lamp, welding ballast resistor.
To reduce the charging current during charging a car battery charger from a simple rectifier connect in series with the charging circuit of the automobile lamp which will act as ballast resistance. For this solder to the conclusions of the two lamp wires, then disconnect from the battery to any wire going to the charger. In the circuit connect the lamp with wires soldered to it. Connecting in the circuit of different power lamp, change the current circuit for the charging current of the battery.
To lower the welding current when welding with the use of a simple welding transformer, having in its composition any of the regulatory devices that connect to the circuit low voltage special welding ballast resistor consists of a metal spiral, made of a material with high resistivity. Disconnect from the terminals of the welding transformer, the welding cable with the electrode holder. Connect one output of the ballast resistance to the same output of the welding transformer.
Now, inserting the end of the wire with the electrode holder between welding coils of the ballast, change the total resistance of the welding circuit, and hence the magnitude of the welding current. To reduce the welding current to move the terminal wire of the electrode holder in the direction opposite from the connected to the welding transformer to the output of ballast resistor.
To avoid electric shock all the changes in the load circuits, the connection and disconnection of the necessary elements produce only when de-energized power sources.
Advice 4: How to find out power transformer
Power and other characteristics of the transformer are indicated on the information plate affixed by the manufacturer on each device. But what if this label has worn off or lost? When an unknown type of transformer and its parameters, you can define them using the avometr and simple calculations.
You will need
- - avometr (multimeter);
- - power source;
- - thin wire;
- - a knife, a sewing needle;
Using a multimeter (avometr) determine the location of the conclusions of the windings of the transformer and measure their resistance. The primary winding consider one that has the greatest resistance. This is the easiest way to determine the primary winding.
If the tested transformer over two winding as the primary, first take any coil with a low resistance. Apply a low AC voltage (e.g. 10 volts) using any power source. Spend the measurements of voltage on all windings. The results of the measurements determine the real primary winding of the transformer. Test yourself by repeating the measurements when applying more voltage to the coils.
Then, observing air gap between coil and the yoke over the windings wrap the thin wire, thus creating another winding. The more turns of wire is wound, the higher the accuracy of the final results. If the transformer is no space for another coil, use part of the existing outer winding. To do this, carefully remove the outer insulation layer of the coil to obtain free access to the latest available winding layer.
Find the end of the opened coil and count from it any number of turns. Remember that this is the number of turns directly affect the results of the calculations. The last turn carefully remove part of the enamel. Preparing the multimeter, one output tap of the naked coil winding, using a sewing needle. Applied voltage to the primary winding, measure the voltage at your coil or coils counted.
Calculate the number of turns in each winding. To do this, the voltage at the investigated winding multiply by the number of turns made by yourself or counted on the last layer. The result divide by the voltages applied to the studied coil.
After counting the number of turns in all of the regular transformer windings, calculate the cross-sectional area of the magnetic circuit. For this purpose, the voltage across the primary winding and multiply by 50 and divide by the number of turns of the coil. The result will be an area of core magnetic circuit, expressed in square centimeters.
To calculate the power of transformer, the resulting cross-sectional area of the magnetic core construct in the square and divide by 1.3. The result will show the capacity of the device in watts.