Advice 1: What's limit of sugar in the blood

Diabetes is a very common disease among residents of all developed countries. Reasons for its appearance can be a variety of factors: poor diet, overweight, Smoking and alcohol abuse, various comorbidities, etc. is Very important for the prevention and treatment of diabetes is controlling blood sugar levels.
What's limit of sugar in the blood

The normal rate of blood sugar the same for everyone and does not depend on age or sex of the person. He is from 3.5 to 5.5 m/mol in one liter of blood.

The analysis shall be carried out in the morning on an empty stomach. If the level of sugar in the blood ranges from 5.5 to 6 m/mol / liter, it is a border condition or a condition close to diabetes. This applies to capillary blood. For venous allowed the figure to 6.1 m/moles per liter.

Indicators of the level of sugar in the blood can be too high, if you made any violations in the process of analysis. In addition, if you have recently experienced a serious trauma, stress, illness, the indicators can be distorted and this situation should be discussed with your doctor.

The rise in blood glucose occurs as a result of the absence or insufficient production from the beta cells of the pancreas of the hormone insulin due to the fact that its action is weakened.

Anxiety symptoms of diabetes that you should be alerted, are: feeling of weakness, nausea, pronounced thirst, frequent urination, feeling of palpitations, rapid and deep breathing. In addition, this excessive sweating, irritability, constant hunger, sleepiness, limb numbness and other discomfort in them.

If you have elevated levels of glucose in the blood, serious consideration should be given to this issue. Launched diabetes affects the nervous system, the brain vessels, heart, vessels of the limbs and eyes, heart and kidneys. The result can be such serious complications as myocardial infarction and stroke, chronic renal failure, vision loss, limb gangrene, etc.

In the case where a diabetic patient person performs all the recommendation of the endocrinologist, controls the level of blood glucose, diet, lead a healthy lifestyle, his health will be no worse than that of people without this diagnosis.

Advice 2 : What should be the blood sugar in a child

The main source of energy in the body acts as glucose is a product of cleavage of the complex molecules of carbohydrates and fats received from food. Its excessive concentration in the blood is a harbinger of diabetes, whereas lack – suppress the vital activity of organs and systems of the body. To determine the level of sugar in blood can in the biochemical laboratory or using a glucometer.
- Defined sugar alone
Blood sugar should certainly first thing in the morning after the last meal should take at least 8 hours. If hunger unbearable, drink plain water without additives, dyes and preservatives. Eating, activity, stress, migrated in the recent past diseases and taking numerous medications distort the results of the study, causing physiologically reasonable increase of sugar level in the blood.
Go to a biochemical laboratory in accordance with the given direction of a pediatrician or test at home using glucometer. Blood sampling for the study is carried out from the finger. Puncture a scarifier or needle of the device is carried out in the pad and on the side. Do not conduct this procedure on the thumb or the index fingers.
Compare the results in mmol/l with existing physiological norm:
• for babies of 2.78 to 4.4;
• for children aged 2 to 6 years 3,3-5,0;
• for students 3,3-5,5;
• for adults and 3.21-6,12.
Identified deviations are not a reason to panic, and the reason for conducting additional laboratory and diagnostic procedures under the supervision of a physician. High-level blood sugar can be triggered by individual immunity of the organism to increasing concentrations of glucose or natural physiological processes in the body – stress survey, for example.
In addition to the study may be assigned an oral test tolerance to glucose, which is carried out on an empty stomach and after ingestion of a concentrated solution of sugar every half hour. The results lay in the coordinate plane "concentration-time" and get a curve, the shape of which is judged on the presence or absence of abnormalities. If after two hours the figures came closer to the original value, the reason for concern.
Test for determination of glycated hemoglobin in the blood to exclude the influence of random factors on the level of sugar. This test shows the average level fluctuations of glucose over the past three months. The normal concentration of these molecules should not exceed 5.9% of the total concentration of hemoglobin. If your results differ, you must undergo a complete examination to identify the factors causing the violation of carbohydrate metabolism in the body.
Risk factors for predisposition to diabetes children who have one or both of the parents suffer from the disease. Viral infection is the trigger for the start of pathological changes. An indirect sign of excessive concentration are thirst, increased amount of urine and reduced body weight.
Useful advice
Before the examination can not even brush teeth, as toothpaste contain sugar, which through the mucous membrane of the mouth gets into the bloodstream and affect the test results.

Advice 3 : What is the permissible error of the meter

Self-monitoring in diabetes is an important component of treatment. To measure blood sugar at home use blood glucose meter. The margin of error of this instrument is higher than in laboratory analyzers, blood glucose.
What is the permissible error of the meter
Measurement of blood sugar is necessary for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment of diabetes and the dose adjustment of drugs. From the therapy depends on how many times a month you will need to measure the sugar. Sometimes a blood analysis is needed many times during the day, sometimes just 1-2 times a week. Self-control is especially necessary for pregnant women and patients with type 1 diabetes.

The permissible error of the meter according to the world standards

The meter is not considered a precision instrument. It is designed only for approximate determination of the concentration of sugar in the blood.

The permissible error of the meter according to the world standards is 20% at glucose 4.2 mmol/L.

For example, if the self-control level sugar 5 mmol/l, the actual concentration value is in the range from 4 to 6 mmol/L.

The permissible error of the meter under standard conditions is measured in percentage and not in mg/DL. the higher, the larger the error in absolute numbers. For example, if the blood sugar reaches about 10 mmol/l, the error does not exceed 2 mmol/l, and if the sugar is about 20 mmol/l, the difference with results from laboratory measurements can be up to 4 mmol/L.
In most cases, the meter overestimates the indicators of glycemia.

The standards allow for the excess of the stated measurement error in 5% of cases. This means that every twentieth research can significantly distort the results.

The margin of error of the blood glucose meters of different companies

The meters are subject to mandatory certification. The accompanying device documents usually given the numbers of permissible measurement error. If you do not see in the instructions, the inaccuracy is 20%.

Some manufacturers of blood glucose meters, pay special attention to the accuracy of the measurements. There are devices for European companies, which have a margin of error of less than 20%. The best indicator to date is 10-15%.

The error of the meter with self-control

Permissible error of measurement that describes the operation of the device. On the accuracy of the study is influenced by some other factors. Improperly prepared skin, too small or large the volume of the resulting drop of blood, unacceptable temperature mode - all this can lead to errors.

Only if all rules are self-enforced, you can count on the declared margin of error of the study.
Rules of self-control with the help of a glucometer can be obtained from the attending physician.

The accuracy of the meter can be checked at the service center. The warranty obligations of the manufacturers provide free advice and Troubleshooting.

Advice 4 : What rules are there for a heartbeat

Human health depends on normal functioning of the heart. That is why study of the patient's pulse is an important part of the medical examination. Doctors are well aware what the heartbeat is normal, and how it changes in different diseases.
Meaning of the word "heart" differs from its scientific meaning. The heartbeat is called a heart, which the person himself can hear a loud knock in the chest, radiating in my head. Doctors also called the heartbeat of the one cycle of the heart consists of contraction and relaxation (systole and diastole).

The normal heart

What is called the heartbeat in the home, can already be considered a violation. Normal people should not listen to the heart. However, if such a phenomenon occurs briefly when the big physical activity is also normal. Alarm should be considered a heartbeat at rest. If for an hour or two of complete rest, a normal heart function is not restored – it is cause for seeking medical attention.

For a proper study of the pulse of the people must be in a calm state. Heart rate is determined by many factors: state of health, degree of fitness, age.

Adult aged 15 to 50 years the norm is the frequency from 60 to 80 beats per minute. The younger the person, the more intense will be the work of the heart. The rapid heartbeat is observed in the fetus in the 10th week of pregnancy – up to 190 beats per minute.

In the babies under one year of age, the norm is 110-170 beats, the child from one year to 2 years – 94-154, from 2 to 4 – 90-140, up to 6 years – 86-126, 6-8 years, 78-118, 8-10 years – 68-108, 10-12 years 60-100, while 12-15-year-olds the norm ranges from 55 to 95 beats.

There are age norms and for the elderly. 50 to 60 years, the norm is between 64 and 84 beats per minute, and for people older than 60 years – 69-89 bumps.

To calculate normal heart beat during exercise there is a special formula: from 220 subtract a person's age. For example, if a person is 30 years old, his normal heart rate during exercise should not exceed 190 beats per minute. This formula is used by the athletes.

Disorders of the heart

Slow heartbeat is called bradycardia. This condition is normal in well-trained people, for example, in athletes, but if a person is not, is a violation. The status of the bradycardia may be accompanied by pain in the heart area, dizziness and even loss of consciousness. Bradycardia (the number of heartbeats per minute less than 40) leads to heart failure.

Tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat. As bradycardia, it leads to violation of blood circulation, resulting in organs, including the heart getting enough oxygen. Poor blood flow to the heart may eventually lead to heart attack.

Another disturbance of heart rhythm – extrasystoles, the appearance of the extraordinary cuts. The person thus feels a push in the heart or Vice versa – fading, he lacks air. This condition may be accompanied by feelings of fear and anxiety.

Any abnormal heart rhythm is a sign of a serious disease and requires treatment by a cardiologist.
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