Advice 1: How to swim out of the crater in the river

The crossing of the river, especially in the locations of dams and power turbines, is very dangerous due to the presence of powerful currents and whirlpools. The whirlpools are even in small streams, in shallow water. If you tried to cross the river in this place and was captured by a whirl – try not to get confused and act according to the rules.
How to swim out of the crater in the river
Instruction
1
Once in the course of, fight him, save your strength. It is best to cross over across. In the funnel it is addictive in a circle – swim for him, but gradually getting away from the center.
2
If you sail in a circle is not obtained and you are in the center of the vortex – type more air in lungs and dive. Try to find a current that brings to the surface, and not be held in a circle. This must have in any funnel – it will make you up.
3
Not to lose the under water orientation, release a few air bubbles – they will always rise to the top. In addition, the vortex may cause dizziness, violate the coordination of movements – try not to get lost and not to panic.
4
Very dangerous the strong currents in shallow water, as the bottom may be littered with driftwood, debris, sharp stones. Try not to touch the bottom during the movement, until it reaches a fairly flat area. Here turn around against the flow and straighten up to his full height, trying to stand up abruptly to the bottom.
5
If you stand did not work, go with the flow on to the wider place of the river. The wider the river, the, as a rule, the smaller the current.
6
Perhaps you're going over to a large boulder or tree sticking out of the water. Try to substitute feet or hands under the blow, thus protecting vital organs. Well, if you manage to grab the tree with your hands.
7
Shallow water danger also represent algae. If you feel that they embraced hinge arms, legs and torso, don't panic. Take a horizontal position and do not make sudden movements, gently leave the dangerous place.
8
Long stay in the water and hypothermia can cause seizures. In this situation, dive into the water head (vertical), straighten your legs, grab big toes, and sharply pull. Try to work more reduced muscle to get rid of the cramps will be faster.

Advice 2 : As there are whirlpools

The vortex – a spinning column of water which in the opinion of our ancestors could destroy everything with your path and tighten in your throat ships, boats and floating structures. The whirlpools are formed by sudden expansion channel flow projections over the shore and the collision of two currents.
whirlpool in the river
The whirlpools can be observed in small rivers and in the seas and oceans. The big danger they represent, but also completely harmless they aren't. On the river the vortex can delay a man, and he will choke. It is dangerous for boats without engine. Large sea swirl is better all to watch from a safe distance.

What is



A vortex is called a natural phenomenon which results in the circular movement of water in the upper layer of the pond, river or ocean. The cause may be the fusion of two currents of different speed and temperature in some parts of the waters or channel of rivers. Revolving in a small space, the water rushes to the outer edge of the vortex, resulting in the centre creates a hollow. The same natural phenomenon can be observed when a sudden expansion channel and flow projections the shore by the current. Marine eddies arise at collision of habitats and tidal waves and counter-currents. Sea water in the vortex can move at very high speed – up to 11 km/h and above. The funnel size in the open ocean can reach several kilometers.

In the whirlpool of river the water is rotating with the speed equal to the speed of the main flow. Whirlpools can form deep pits and are typical for mountain rivers. In the mountains very often formed of suwadi: in this natural phenomenon the water rotates over the surface or underwater mountains market or ledge in the Yar. A whirlpool formed by two currents with different speed and direction. Place of education suwada can serve various hydraulic structures – dams, levees, foundations of bridges, etc. Very often large suwadi formed during floods.

Types of whirlpools



In places where this phenomenon is formed continuously, the whirlpools are called constants. Seasonal eddies are formed in certain times of the year and there are intermittent. The most common type are the occasional whirlpools. To predict the place of their formation impossible as to count the possible damage they can cause. The whirlpools can be observed in various parts of the world. The largest known Maelstrom, off the coast of the island of Moskenes in Norway, Charybdis and Scylla in the Strait of Messina between Italy and Sicily and the vortex formed near the Niagara falls. The first record of Malstrem appeared in the 16th century, and about Scylla and Charybdis wrote Homer as two monsters, with power and cruelty which had to face Odysseus and his crew.

Advice 3 : How is the vortex

With the formation of small craters on the river followed, perhaps, by many. A curious process raises many questions not only among children, who are watching in great admiration as the water flows, but also in adults.
How is the vortex

Physics



Interestingly, the process of the emergence of small and large eddies is nearly the same. Pick up speed, the water collides with the relief surface of the shore, or in the case of large oceanic eddies, from the opposite course. From such a strike due to the speed of the flow, the water back, creating an effect of torsion. Continuously aiming for the outer edge of the whirlpool, the water creates a special recess in the centre, forming thus the usual picture of the phenomenon.

Long and narrow bays or special terrain, characterized by preventing normal processes of water exchange with rocks – a great place for the emergence of a whirlpool, it received at the peak of the tidal mass of water does not have time to fully return to their borders and inevitably is faced with new threads having opposite direction of motion.

The strength and size of vortex is determined by combination of the existing natural circumstances, which considered the velocity of the water, especially tide, weather conditions, seasonality. The diameter of the crater can vary from a few centimeters to hundreds of kilometers, and the flow rate to reach as much as 11 kilometers per hour.

The types of funnels



All whirlpools are divided into permanent, seasonal and episodic, some of them go unnoticed, others can cause serious damage both on the individual farms and the whole States. It is known that the river swirl may drag the unwary swimmer and a large sea of forever enter into his arms in a powerful boat or a ship.

Relatively recently scientists involved in research of the world ocean, were found in the special eddies, rings, which are formed as a result of collision of vertical flows and can be found only on images received from the satellite. It is known that such rings can exist long enough, moving in the time direction for the southern hemisphere and in the opposite hour to the North. Their occurrence is caused by the action of the magnetic field of the Earth, forcing a mass of water to rise from the depths of the ocean, building powerful, able to exist for many years of natural design.
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