Advice 1: How to decipher the article

At the household level, any consumer unwittingly becomes not only "just the buyer", but also a commodity: a competent reading some labels and labels requires specific knowledge. It is primarily concerned with decoding articles - conventional digital and letter designations assigned to the product to identify it. Articles like codes, organizes accounting of goods and sales documentation, accelerate the execution of orders, to facilitate the study of demand.
How to decipher the article
The need for systematization of information about a particular product depending on the needs of production of products and their promotion. This requires the classification (article one of her characters) is conducted on the most significant characteristics of the goods (raw materials, properties, etc.).
Understand a basic concept about the goods. They are divided into consumer (i.e. for private use, including food, nonfood and medical), manufactured goods (for the production of other goods) and office automation (management and administrative). The hierarchy of all these products multistage: genus, class, group, subgroup, species, variety (brand, model, size, etc.). Systematically set out in the national classification of products (OKP), the names of which are reflected in the figures in the articles.
A brief article often called conditional characteristics of the product, indicating its special characteristics. For different groups of products, the characteristics will always be different. For example, for a specific Shoe models will be substantial: the technology of production, design and purpose, the material from which the product is made.
According to GOST the first letter of the article of footwear signifies the purpose of the product and the production method, the second and the third appearance of the skin. This is followed by figures: a kind of shoes, it kind of fixing method. The letter after the numbers is a designation of color material from which made the top. However, most modern Shoe production facilities (including in Russia) waive the strict rules detailed encoding of the article to simplify it.
Rules for the preparation of articles of fabric. For example, linen, the first two digits of the code - characteristic groups of cells, which is a reference to its purpose or the type of output. The third digit - sign subgroup and characteristics of the fibrous fabric. Ie, if the third digit of the article number is 2, it means: semi-fabric. Fourth and further figures may vary (this is the sequence number of the fabric). For example, article 08101 means: multi-colored canvas, linen.
Manufacturers have fixed your naming of articles. Here is an example of decoding article gloves is one of the Western European factories. The first three digits represent the model of the product, for example 001-199 - this men's gloves, 200-599 ladies. Next, the fourth and fifth digits define the materials of the samples. For example, the velour has code 04, the pig skin - 09. The sixth digit of the article number (1 to 8) detects the material (type) lining. The number 1 will stand wool, 3 coy sheepskin, 8-coy - Mouton. The last digit is the color, but the numbers are indicated only in two variants: 1 means black color, 3 - all other colors. Seeing the label of gloves article 8001323 you with merchandise or special directories decipher the following information: before you - the women's gloves from the crack-lined silk brown.
Articles of original products are determined by specialized manufacturers ' catalogs. Aftermarket products such as spare parts, are different from major articles, which are also approved by the manufacturers, but in these cases, the price lists are made of the cross-connect - mapping according to the original numbers unoriginal.
Useful advice
The word "article" is of Latin origin. It goes back to the root "articulus" which means "section, article". The everyday meaning of the word - type of product, its brand or code.

Advice 2: How to decode the grade of steel

If you are faced with the writing of the grade of steel to decipher which can not, do not rush to call the experts in metals or rush to the library for reference. To decode the grade of steel you will not be too difficult, just need to know what letters to denote chemical elements that belong to a particular alloy.
How to decode the grade of steel
So, in the marking of steel are the following elements of the notation:

N – Nickel, X – chromium, M – molybdenum, T – titanium, cobalt, D copper, silicon, G – manganese.
To specify the methods of deoxidation of steel are also used letter designations: SP – quiet steel, SS – balanced, KP – boiling.
Your notation there are different types of steel depending on the composition and appointment.
Non-alloy structural steel of ordinary quality are indicated by the letters ST. (for example, ART.4, where figure 4 after the letters indicates the carbon content in percent).
Non-alloy structural steel high quality are indicated by a two-digit number that indicates the average content of carbon in steel (ST.10)
Quality steel for manufacturing high pressure vessels and boilers represent as well as structural and non-alloy steel, add the letter K (for example, 20K).
Alloy structural steel designate an alphanumeric code. The numbers after the letters indicate the approximate content of the element (but the content of alloying elements less than 1.5% figure is not put).
A low content of impurities (sulphur, phosphate) are denoted by the letters A or W at the end of the markings (e.g., 17ХГ-W).
To the designation of casting of structural steel in the end is added the letter L.
The designation of structural steel there is a letter and numbers that correspond to the minimum yield point of steel. Additionally, at the end put T for heat-strengthened rolled, for superior corrosion resistance, D to denote a high content of copper (for example, 354).
Non-alloy tool steel divided into qualitative (denoted by the letter U and the numeral indicating the average carbon content, for example, U9) and high-quality in the marking which is placed the letter a at the end of the labeling (e.g., U9A).
Alloy tool steels indicate in the marking the same as a structural alloy (for example, 3Х2В5МФ).
Marking high-speed steels starts with the letter R, then there is a digit indicating the content of tungsten. If the vanadium content exceeds 2.5%, indicated by the letter f and the corresponding digit (e.g., Р5М6Ф3).
Knowing these rules, you can easily determine the composition of a particular steel, and an experienced professional transcript grades of steel and is simple and intuitive.
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