Advice 1: How to connect the motor for 220 volts

A normal 220-volt electricity in the home is the most affordable power source for electrical appliances. Some motors can work from it directly, others to power from such a network will require additional elements and nodes.
How to connect the motor for 220 volts
Instruction
1
Single-phase asynchronous motor is designed for a voltage of 220 V. It is enough to connect to the network. Remember, however, that the simplicity of the motor connection of this type turns into a major disadvantage — low efficiency.
2
Two-phase motors, also called a condenser, require two parts: paper capacitor for a voltage of less than 500 (the capacity stated in the Handbook either directly on the engine), and in some cases step-down autotransformer, because most of these motors designed for a voltage of 110 V. On the windings, which is designed for direct connection, apply this voltage directly, while the rest is through connected in series with it a capacitor. Use any other capacitors in addition to paper, is not allowed.
3
Three phase motors to work as the condenser is not designed. Use them in this capacity only at very small load on the shaft, otherwise it will stop, and the windings will burn out from overload. At nominal load feed this engine only from real three-phase network.
4
To connect with universal motor (commutator serial excitement) sequentially connect the field winding and the collector-brush unit. Then, after having loaded the motor shaft the mechanism with which it will be used (this is mandatory), apply to this Daisy-chain supply voltage.
5
Brushed DC motors are usually low voltage. To enable this motor into a 220-volt network, use the appropriate parameters of the power supply, consisting of transformer and rectifier.
Note
Do not touch live parts under voltage. Beware of mechanical injuries. Use the engine, the voltage to which it was designed.

Advice 2: How to connect a 3-phase motor

There are 2 wiring connection asynchronous 3-phase motor 3-phase grid – "triangle" and "star". The choice of the scheme depends on the network voltage and the calculated motor operating voltage.
How to connect a 3-phase motor
You will need
  • - Screwdriver,
  • - pliers.
Instruction
1
Examine the electrical characteristics of the connected motor. They can be found in the passport or on the plate bolted to the housing of the mechanism. There are recommended wiring diagram for various supply voltages 3-phase network.
2
Verify that motor shaft rotates freely. To do this, rotate his hand. First start induction motor is better to do without the load, since some desirable mechanisms to rotate in the opposite direction, so do not connect the flanges of the drive clutch prior to the end of connection of the motor.
3
Remove the cover on the terminal block of the motor and see how the jumpers are set. Method jumper setting determines the scheme for the motor connections. The jumpers connecting the 3 pins in the second row form a star schema. Is a common wiring diagram for 3-phase motors 3-phase network with voltage of 380V. When you install the jumper, closing the adjacent pairs of contacts 3, it turns out the scheme "triangle". It is used to activate the motor in 3-phase network with voltage of 127V.
4
Select the desired connection and install jumpers in the correct order. As widespread 3 phase network has a voltage of 380 V, to connection, use a star schema.
5
Unplug the machine, interrupting the supply circuit of the motor. Never work with wires under the voltage-fed 3-phase is very dangerous.
6
Connect the lead wires to the motor.
7
Assemble scheme of the controller starts and stops the motor.
8
Turn on the machine and controller can do a trial run of the motor.
9
If the motor rotates in the reverse direction, turn off the circuit and swap any 2 wires. This will change the direction of rotation.

Advice 3: How to calculate motor

If you decide to make the motor, you will need an accurate calculation of the characteristics of his work. After all, this will depend on whether he will be able to perform their functions or not.
How to calculate motor
Instruction
1
To get started please read the methodological literature on the subject. The most complete method of manufacture and calculation of motors of different models are reflected in the manual N. In.Vinogradova "How to calculate motor", 1974
2
Identify the main dimensions of the motor, that is, the length of the rotor and its diameter.
3
Then calculate perforated layer, that is, the size of teeth and grooves.
4
Determine the winding data, that is, how many turns present in the coil and what is the diameter of the wire. Calculate the magnetic fluxes and the main induction in the parts of the rotor and stator. If you plan to manufacture the collector machine, you will need to determine the size of reservoir, number and size of brushes.
5
Determine the power loss that will occur inside the motor. In devices of small capacity calculation is performed on the basis of the strength of the bearings, manifold and shaft.
6
If you produce a complete and accurate calculate, you will need to do so - it will need a shared notebook. However, you can do simplified calculations, which include determination of the size of the magnetic core and the receiving winding data. All other measurements and calculations can be avoided, since the solution of physical tasks do not need to strive for completely accurate data. For example, the engine will not be exposed to excessive heat, so no thermal calculations you can do. Thus, the manufacture of the motor is quite possible, provided that you have at least basic knowledge in physics and electrical engineering. Study in detail the issue, conduct the necessary calculations and try to collect his first engine.

Advice 4: How to check asynchronous motor

Asynchronous motors three-phase current are widely used in various industries, including automotive. The principle of operation of the engine based on the conversion of electrical energy of alternating current into mechanical energy through the use of a rotating magnetic field. In some cases it is necessary to check up correctness of connection of windings of the motor.
How to check asynchronous motor
You will need
  • - battery;
  • - megger;
  • - millivoltmeter.
Instruction
1
To check the correctness of connections of three-phase windings it is necessary to define the beginning and end of each phase. Prepare for this and megger millivoltmeter.
2
First, if using a test light determine the identity of a separate coil terminal phase. Then to one of the phases connect through the switch the constant current source. The power source must be such that the winding of the electric motor passed a small current (battery volt 2B). In the circuit include a resistor to reduce current.
3
Turn on the switch. At the beginning of the electrical connection, and also at open circuit in the windings of the remaining two phases will be induced electromotive force. The direction of the electromotive force is determined by the polarity ends of the windings check the phase, which includes a rechargeable battery.
4
Note that the direction in which they turn on and off switch is deflected needle of a millivoltmeter, which must be alternately connected to the output ends of the other two phases. If to "the beginning" connected "plus" of the battery, and the "end" - "minus", then the off-switch on the other phase will be a "plus" on the initial findings and the "minus" end. On closing the circuit the polarity on the remaining phases will reverse the above.
5
If electricmotor has three pins when connecting a winding of the type "triangle" or "star", check the cable connection by connecting a lower voltage to two conclusions. In this case, the voltmeter measure the voltage between the third output and other findings connected to the network. If the connection is correct, these stresses will be equal to half the magnitude of the voltage applied to two conclusions.
6
Describes the measurements guide at least three times, each time summing up the current to a couple different conclusions. If a phase is connected is incorrect, when two attempts of the three voltage between the third terminal and the rest will be different.

Advice 5: Why 220 Volts

Voltage 220V used in home power, is dangerous to life. Why not begin to organize in the homes of the 12-volt network and produce the corresponding electrical appliances? It turns out that such a decision would be very inefficient.
Why 220 Volts



The power allocated to the load equal to the product of voltage on it and passing through it current. It follows that the same power can be obtained using an infinite number of combinations of currents and voltages - the main thing to work every time was the same. For example, the power output of 100 W can be obtained by 1 V and 100 A or 50 V and 2 A, or 200 V and 0.5 A, and so on. The main thing - to make a load with so much resistance that when the desired voltage is passed through it the required current (according to Ohm's law).

But the power stands out not only on load but also on the lead wires. This is detrimental because this power is lost useless. Now imagine that for the power load capacity of 100 watts uses conductors with a total resistance of 1 Ohm. If the load is supplied with voltage of 10 V, to obtain such capacity through it will have to pass a current of 10 A. that is, the load must have a resistance of 1 Ohm, comparable to the resistance of conductors. So, they will have lost exactly half of the supply voltage, and therefore power. So in this scheme, the power load developed at 100 watts, you will have to raise the voltage from 10 to 20, and in heating the conductors will be of no use to save even 10 V * 10 A = 100 watts.

If 100 watts are obtained when the combined voltage to 200 V and current 0.5 A, the conductor resistance of 1 Ohm will drop the voltage of only 0.5 V, and the capacity allocated to them, will be only 0.5 V * 0.5 A = 0.25 W. Agree, such a loss can be neglected.

It would seem that when 12 volt power is also possible to reduce losses by using thicker conductors have less resistance. But they will be very expensive. Therefore, low-voltage power is used only where the conductors are very short, and so they can afford to make thick. For example, in computers such conductors located between the power supply and the motherboard, in vehicles - between the battery and the electrical system.

What if, on the contrary, to apply in home electrical lot of tension? Because then the conductors can be made very thin. It turns out that this solution is also unsuitable for practical use. High voltage can penetrate the insulation. In this case it would be dangerous to touch not only exposed wires but also isolated. Why do only the high-voltage transmission lines, which saves a huge amount of metal. Before serving in the house this voltage is lowered to 220 V via transformers.

A voltage of 240 V, as a compromise (one side, not piercing the insulation, and on the other, allowing to use for household wiring is relatively thin wires), proposed the use of Nikola Tesla. But in the US, where he lived and worked, this proposal was not heeded. There are still applied voltage 110V - too dangerous, but to a lesser degree. In Western Europe the voltage is 240 V, that is, as much as Tesla suggested. In the USSR there are primarily two voltage: 220V in rural areas and 127 in the cities, it was then decided to transfer to the first of these stresses and the city. It is now widely used in Russia and the CIS. The most low is the Japanese grid. The voltage it is only 100 V.


Advice 6: How to connect El.engine

In the production used the connection of motors or directly to three-phase network, or using frequency Converter. In the home also wiser to use the drive. But its cost is quite high, so capacitor scheme is still the most common.
How to connect El.engine
Electric motors are used not only in production but also in the household. Circular saws, mill, extraction, various grinding machines. If the commutator motors to connect is not difficult, as it is difficult to make a mistake, only two conclusions available, asynchronous motors need to be connected strictly according to the scheme.

For this you need to pay attention to the tag that is on the engine block. The terminals of the windings or all out of the terminal there are six wires coming out of engine) or from the inside windings are connected in star and the terminals only goes three wires. It remains only to guess the phase to rotate the anchor in the desired direction.

Connection to three-phase network



If you are not using frequency converters, it is necessary to connect the windings in star. In the case where the terminals are integers, you need to connect pins S4, S5 and S6 jumpers. And the conclusions C1, C2 and C3 to supply power. If there is no terminal, then you need to ring winding, starting to join at one point, and the ends to supply power. The thing is, each winding in this case will account for 220 Volts. From this we can conclude that somehow you can connect the asynchronous motor to the home network 220.

The connection triangle is used if you are connecting to some models of frequency converters, or to connect to home network. In the presence of terminal you need to connect pins C1 with C6, C2 with C4 C3 with C5. And each pair is energized. The use of a frequency Converter is good because you can change the frequency of rotation of the armature without the use of mechanical devices (e.g., variable speed), change acceleration and braking.

Connection to single-phase domestic network



In order not to lose power, it is best to use a model of frequency converters, which are powered by a single phase and have three phase. That's just the price much bite, and they can be purchased in large cities or in online stores. And if you order in the latter, where the probability that the delivery time will not hurt the device?

Therefore, most use a capacitor for phase shift. Battery working capacitors must be calculated so that for every hundred Watts of power accounts for 7 µf of capacitance. For example, for motor 1.5 kW desired battery capacity of about 105 MCF. The motor windings are connected according to the scheme of the triangle, one the output is zero, the second to phase, and the third via a capacitor connects to the phase.

Working in parallel capacitors is switched on block launcher that are involved only during engine start-up. To provide this mode of operation can batch switch in which one contact when the button is released opens. The capacity of the starter capacitor needs to be at least three times more capacity of workers. And launcher included in parallel work during startup.

Advice 7: How to run three phase motor from 220 volts

The main application of three phase motors is considered to be industrial production. But sometimes you need to use this engine in the farm. You need to make simple calculations and perform simple wiring.
How to run three phase motor from 220 volts
Instruction
1
As a rule, for connection of three phase motor uses three wires and a supply voltage of 380 volts. The network is 220 volts with only two wires, so the engine has started, the third wire also need to apply tension. For this purpose, the condenser, which is called a condenser.
2
The capacitance of the capacitor depends on the power of the engine and is calculated by the formula:
C=66*P, where C is the capacitance of the capacitor, UF, P – electric motor power, kW.

That is, for every 100 watts of power the engine needs to pick up about 7 µf of capacitance. Thus, for the engine power of 500 watt need a capacitor with a capacitance of 35 µf.

The required capacity can be assembled from several smaller capacitors by connecting them in parallel. Then the total capacity is counted by formula:
Sobsch = C1+C2+C3+.....+Cn

It is important to remember that the working voltage of a capacitor should be 1.5 times the motor power. Consequently, when the supply voltage is 220 volts, the capacitor must be 400 volts. Capacitors you can use the following type of KBG, MBGC, OSH.

3
For motor connection use two connection schemes is the "triangle" and "star".
4
If the three-phase motor has been connected according to the scheme "triangle", then to single-phase network connected on the same circuit with addition of capacitor.
5
Motor connection star performed according to the following scheme.
6
For the operation of the motors power up to 1.5 kW is sufficient capacitance of the operating capacitor. If you connect the engine more power, this engine will be very slow to accelerate. It is therefore necessary to use a starting capacitor. It is connected in parallel with the working capacitor and is used only during acceleration of the engine. Then the capacitor is disconnected. The capacitance of the capacitor to run the motor needs to be 2-3 times more than the capacity of the worker.
7
After starting the engine, determine the direction of rotation. It is usually necessary that the motor rotate clockwise. If the rotation is in the right direction to do nothing. To change direction, you must do the rewiring of the engine. Disconnect any two wires, swap them and reconnect. The direction of rotation will reverse.
8
When performing electrical work observe safety regulations and use the individual means of protection against electric shock.

Advice 8: How to connect step-down transformer

Step-down transformer designed to power loads less stress than that which is available in the network. So it is not out of order, you must find and correctly connected to the coil, which is designed for this purpose.
How to connect step-down transformer
You will need
  • The transformer, voltmeter, tools.
Instruction
1
We should not think that network winding of the power transformerand is always that which has the maximum resistance, or the greatest number of turns. There are so-called anode-filament transformers in the set of windings which are decreasing and increasing. However, if it is known that the transformer is step-down only, feel free to take the high resistance of the windings over the network.
2
When it is unknown whether all of the secondary winding are lower, consider the following hallmarks of primary winding: its conclusions are located at some distance from the rest, or it is wound in separate sections of the frame.
3
When in doubt, take a picture of the transformer, and then put the profile in the forum, do not forget to specify the brand of the device. You will soon receive information about the location of insights. Also make sure that the transformer is designed for voltage 220 V and frequency 50 Hz (there are 400-Hz, which at low frequency instantly burn out).
4
If the power winding has three leads, one of them is a tap to enable the 110 or 127 volt network. Find this combination of conclusions of the coil at which the maximum resistance is obtained - that they can be fed with 220 V. If the findings are not three, but four, it is usually a question of two separate windings which are to power from 220-volt mains must be connected not only sequentially, but also in phase.
5
Searching for the right way in-phase connection of the windings, connect them in series, connect to AC voltmeter, working at the limit of 500 V, then, without referring to the conclusions of the primary windings, one secondary feed AC voltage of several volts. Read the voltmeter, then disconnect the voltage, reverse the findings of one of their primary windings and repeat the experience, then remove the voltage. Option for maximum voltmeter readings and is correct.
6
Now, knowing the location of the primary winding (or windings of the two) connect it (either two windings in series and in phase) to the network via a fuse, the rated current of which select depending on the power transformera (0.05 A per 10 watts). Then carefully, without touching any of the leads (secondary winding can also be high voltage!), measure with a voltmeter variable voltage produced by the transformerohms.
7
To get from AC to DC, connect to the secondary winding of the rectifier with a filter. Observe polarity when connecting the output of the bridge to the electrolytic capacitor. Note that the voltage at the output of the filter will increase 1.41 times compared to the current value of the voltage on the secondary winding.
8
All perepiski engage when de-energized the transformere, and if the rectifiers high voltage before touching the parts, not only obestochivaete transformer, but also discharges the capacitors of filters. Do not exceed the maximum currents of the individual windings and the total power consumed by the transformerand as a whole.
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