Introductory constructions are words, phrases and sentences that are used to Express evaluation of the message by the speaker. They are not part of the proposal, do not perform syntactic functions, i.e., they are constructions, grammatically unrelated to the sentence itself. Since the same word can be used as introductory, and as usual parts of the sentence, then their distinction, consider the following.
- No introductory word, neither from him can not put the question, and homonymous part of the sentence this question allows. Compare: "To his delight, brother did not take offence, and To his joy it is impossible to remain indifferent". In the second example, the design of the "to his delight" answers the question "why?" and is a Supplement.- To introductory words and homonymous members offer you can pick up synonyms, but they are different. Compare: "He seemed in love" and "his Face seemed tired". Synonymous with the replacement of the sentence may look like this: "He apparently fell in love" and "his Face looked tired".
Identify introductory words on morphological grounds. Most often they are expressed by special words that perform only the function of woodnote, for example: so, please, apparently, however, therefore, firstly, etc. as such words are adverbs. Introductory words can be expressed as:- nouns, usually in combination with a preposition (without a doubt, unfortunately, in particular);- substantialbye adjectives (most importantly, at most);- adverbs that can be used as an independent sentence (on the contrary, at last, true);- verbs in spraguea form (sorry, you see, of course);- verbs in the infinitive form the infinitive or as a combination (by the way, I confess, to know);the adverbial participle with dependent words (to tell the truth, in other words).
Identify introductory words at their value (category). With introductory words the speaker evaluates the statement from different perspectives:- assessment of degree of reality to announce: confidence, a suggestion, a possibility ("Short hair, it was obviously just combed it."); - the expression of feelings in connection with the message ("fortunately, the rain soon ended."); - an indication of the information source ("It was, according to old residents, in the forty-sixth".);- an indication of the order of thought and their relationship ("first, I'm very tired, and secondly- was annoyed about this state of Affairs."); - an indication of the methods and techniques of design thinking ("in short, everything went well."); - the expression of appeal to the reader or interlocutor to attract his attention ("you see, He was the eldest in the family."); - expression of expressive utterances ("I have lived, it's ridiculous to say next and didn't notice.").
Introductory words can stand at the beginning, the end and in the middle of a sentence. Accordingly, they are allocated with commas either one or two sides. The delimited signs remind about the special intonation, which are pronounced the introductory design. It involves pitch, faster speech rate, using pauses and a lack of emphasis on such words.
Introductory words as the elements of offer, can join unions. "In these cases, as he said, he was a skillful lawyer."
Some introductory words similar in meaning to the conjunctions: but, however, therefore, thus, etc. In this case, they Express the relationship between sentences or parts of sentences. "I fell asleep at midnight. So, for two hours the earth has changed".
Advice 2: What is induction training on the manufacturing
In accordance with article 225 of the Labour code of the Russian Federation for all job persons and also for workers moving to another job, the employer or certified person shall conduct a briefing on safety and labor protection.
The order of training of labor safety at the enterprise
Induction training is obligatory for all employed persons and temporary workers and workers of other enterprises, produce work to the designated site, students of educational institutions at appropriate levels, gaining work experience, and other persons involved in organizational production activities.
Introductory information provides specialist health and safety or employee charged with these responsibilities by order of the employer. Large enterprises to conduct specific sections of introductory instruction can be designed to the appropriate professionals, e.g. medical staff, fire brigade etc.
The process of instruction
Induction training is carried out on specially prescribed program, created on the basis of legislative and other normative legal acts of the Russian Federation with regard to individual activities of the company and approved by the employer in the prescribed manner.
As a rule, induction training is carried out in the premises of labour protection or a specially equipped place with the use of modern learning tools and clear materials (posters, models, layouts, films, etc.).
The process of instruction should include:
- familiarize personnel with the existing hazardous and unsafe production factors.
- study all safety requirements and labor protection written into the local regulations of the organization;
- instructions on labor protection, technical and production documentation;
- application of methods and receptions of works, it does not harm the employee.
Completed training on the protection of labour oral verification of the acquired working knowledge of the person who conducted this orientation.
A detailed list of questions for the formulation of the programme induction is provided in Appendix 3 GOST 12.0.004-90 "Organization of training of labor safety".
On guidance to produce the entry in the register of introductory instruction with the necessary instruction and instructiunea signature, and the document of acceptance for work. Along with the magazine, you can use a personal card study.
Conducting induction briefings shall be recorded in the logbook is mandatory:
in educational work with students involved in extracurricular activities;
- in the work – the work of the Director, crew, etc.