Advice 1: How to make an exhibition of children's drawings

The exhibition drawings you can not only organize in a kindergarten or school. A drawing contest you can spend in child care of any orientation. Exhibition of children's works may be part of a family celebration. And always the question is how to make it, so that was nice and all to see.
How to make an exhibition of children's drawings
You will need
  • - Passepartout;
  • - canvas or other solid fabric;
  • - subframes or stands;
  • - color braid;
  • - dressmaker pins;
  • - plastic clips;
  • - PVA glue.
Any work of art looks better if you put it in a frame. It may be passe-partout. The glass in this case is not necessary. Can do it yourself or teach children. The ability to arrange the work will be useful to them again and again. Each job will need 2 sheets of cardboard the same size, a little more of the picture. Since the scope will have to be attached to tissue, ribbon or tape, cardboard should not be very thick. Conventional packaging is quite plain in appearance, so it make the base. Frame cut out of colored. The outer side must coincide with the sides of the base. The inner perimeter of the frame make a little less than a perimeter of the work. Stick figure on a base on top of stick frame. The upper part can be made from self-adhesive film.
Sign of work. You can make cards on the computer, writing on each the name and age of the artist, and the name and material of the work — exactly as is done in museums. Card to glue to the frame or attach it to the canvas.
Make several square or rectangular panels. Can fasten together 4 strips in the form of a "box" and covered them with canvas or other solid fabric. The canvas in this case no need to glue or to ground.
Place on the stands of the drawings in the frames and attach them to the tailor's needles. Name and the participants write on a separate sheet. The title should be clear to both adults and children, and easy to read. Do not abuse the curly colored letters. It is better to choose a readable font.
Exhibition stands are convenient, but quite traditional. You can think of something more fun, especially if you make home a small exhibition. Stands can be not only rectangular, but round. Buy some hoops and obtyanite their fabric. The most suitable materials of light tones: cream, pink, beige. Stands can be in the form of apples, berries, colored balls, etc. Because they are light, you can hang them on self-adhesive colored hooks.
Children's works can be hung on ribbon or on the ribbon. Beat in the plinth a few nails at an equal distance from each other. To the top of the wall, attach the bar, which is also hammered in nails at the same distance from each other. While it is not necessary that the nails were strictly opposite each other. Tape can hang and angle. The main thing that they were parallel. Pull the tape between the nails, and colored paper clips attach.

Advice 2: How to arrange a children's exhibition

Exhibition of works in a kindergarten or school is a very important event not only for children but for teachers as well as parents of pupils. From the design of the exhibition depends on the perception of children and the mood of the audience.
How to arrange a children's exhibition
In the design of the exhibition of children's works, it is necessary to consider the title of the exhibition (sign). It should reflect the theme of the exhibition, to be tastefully decorated. At the same time, a sign should not distract the viewers ' attention from children's work. In addition, place the announcement of the opening of the exhibition.
In the organization of collective exhibitions stick to one style. All work must be signed (name, author, age group). Signature should be done in one font, in one color, on sheets of the same size and color.
All work place so that they do not overlap each other. The audience should be able to view all crafts in detail. Higher work position in the far background. DIY lower front place. This staggering DIY will provide a smooth transition from one exhibit to another during the inspection.
When you make a show of Handicrafts made from natural material (for example, from vegetables, fruits, moss, etc.), keep in mind the fact of damage of the material used. Daily review DIY, eliminating spoiled work. As a rule, the validity of such exhibitions limited.
Organizing a personal exhibition, also pay attention to the clearance signs. It also spells out the exhibition's title, surname and name of author of work, his age and visited the group. Each work must be completed and signed.
When visiting the exhibition, viewers need to work a guide. It could be someone from teachers or parents. Solo exhibition may present the child – author (i.e. age). It gives a sense of confidence to the child, teaches him to Express their thoughts, to communicate them to other people.
After visiting the exhibition viewers, invite them to write a review about the exhibition. This will help to identify positive and negative aspects in the organization and to prevent possible errors in the future. In addition, the positive feedback will be for children high assessment of their work.

Advice 3: How to make school Museum

School Museum could become an additional source of knowledge for students. The design of the space allotted for the Museumdepends on its thematic orientation and functionality.
How to make school Museum
Define the thematic specificity of the Museum. Before its registration, you need to decide what it does what is intended to do. For example, one school is a way to draw the child to the history of its creation and another opportunity to demonstrate what is being studied during lessons.
Use for design of school Museum display cases and stands. The first will protect the exhibits from damage, and the second will make the presentation of the material more visual.
Divide the room into zones. Exhibits should be set so that between them the link. If the Museum has a historical character, for example, reflects the history of this school, all objects are best placed in a circle in chronological order. It will be convenient to grasp and facilitate the work of tour guide or teacher performing its functions.
Focus on one thing, if there is such a need. For example, the most important and significant exhibit can be placed in the center of the room. On the one hand, will save space and will not interfere, because the school Museum does not imply the presence of a large number of people.
Consider the color scheme. Usually walls and ceilings in museums are neutral shades that do not attract undue attention.
Pay attention to lighting. It plays a big role, especially if among the exhibits presented in the Museum's collection are paintings. The right lighting can make them even more impressive. Do not expose the school of the Museum of the sunlight: this can have a negative impact on the condition of the exhibits.
To maintain the level of temperature that is necessary to ensure that the collection is preserved for years to come. Avoid excessive humidity or dryness.

Advice 4: Secrets bone China: how it's done

Bone China is considered the "Royal" is a fine, white, fresh, translucent... the Only plant in Russia that produces such dishes Imperial porcelain factory. How and what do this China, and why is it called bone?
Secrets bone China: how it's done

Porcelain "on the bones": a product of the deficit

The word "bone" in the title of the thinnest porcelain – not a metaphor, but a literal reference to the composition of raw materials. Conventional porcelain mass comprises kaolin – white clay and other clay materials, which gives upon firing a white color, as well as quartz and feldspar. In England in the middle of the XVIII century began to add to the strength and bone ash contained calcium phosphate and gave the dish such an incredible whiteness.

At the Imperial porcelain factory (in Soviet times it was called Lomonosov) bone China began in the sixties of the XX century. Paradoxically, the fact: the reason why the plant mastered the technology was not the ambitious desire to produce elite "Royal" dishes, and... the shortage of raw materials.

В цехе по производству костяного фарфора

Since 1965, the factory was experiencing serious difficulties with the arrival of kaolin – white clay was widely used in the paper, perfume, and military industry. But there was a lot of waste bone. Therefore, the Director of the plant Alexander Sokolov has set production laboratory of the Lomonosov porcelain factory task: to develop the mass to bone China.

The composition of the raw material picked up by trial and error (foreign counterparts are not in a hurry to share a trade secret). The result was, for example, that the bird bones attached to the porcelain junk lilac tint.

As a result of staying on the Shin bone of cattle. Moreover, raw materials were not lacking. Button manufacture stamped from defatted bones buttons for pillow cases and military clothing – and the waste went to the porcelain factory, where he pergialis.

Mass for the manufacture of bone China only 55 % consisted of traditional kaolin, clay, feldspar and quartz, the rest is accounted for by bone ash.

In 1968 the plant was launched workshop for production of bone China. Unlike the English porcelain, which was thick enough at the factory decided to release thin-walled porcelain. And first even "overdone": first the cups were so thin and unrealistically light, that buyers began to complain of a feeling of "plastmassovaja". Therefore, the thickness of the ceramic body has decided to increase by 0.3 mm.

The birth of the "thin stuff"

Cup of bone China, like many other porcelain items produced by casting. For this form, a plaster cast of the brim is filled with liquid porcelain mixture, reminiscent of sour cream the slurry. The plaster begins to "take" from the slip moisture – and the result on the inner walls of the mold gradually increases porcelain "crust". When she gets a proper thickness the excess slip is removed from the mold. Then the dried "crock" (so called unfired porcelain) begins to lag behind the walls of the mold and remove it.

In the manufacture of porcelain figurines items "dial thickness" for a long time – a few hours. With thin-walled cups, everything happens much faster – at the Imperial porcelain factory bone porcelain mixture is poured into molds for two minutes.

Olive automatically forms moving on a circle, the dispenser automatically pours desired amount of slurry, and then vacuum suction "takes" superfluous.

Handles for cups, teapots, sugar bowls are molded separately and then "glued" manually. As the glue is the same porcelain blend, only thicker.

Ручки для посуды отливаются в специальных формах

Flat products (plate, plates) are made by stamping. Porcelain prefabricated for these products do very thick, it resembles a plastic dough, rolled into "sausages". Cut piece of "sausages" is placed on a plaster mold, on top of him lowered a rotating forming roller (for each model roller). Surpluses are cut automatically, but the sanded edges and make the surface completely flat – the problem is the so-called "opravit", working only manually.

Sponge, brush, frosted glass, coated abrasives – tools of oprasic simple but effective and time-tested. Them porcelain headers fall after drying.

As tempers crock

Bone China is fired twice. The temperature for the first firing very high – 1250 – 1280 degrees, which is much higher than that of conventional porcelain. At this temperature, the porcelain mixture is fully "baked" and acquires the necessary strength. In furnace cookware conducts 12 hours. And, by the way, is reduced in size by about 13%.

But until Shine. The Shine will appear after the porcelain is glazed. It consists of the same materials as the porcelain, but in a different percentage, in addition, it added a marble and dolomite. During firing the glaze melts, creating a brilliant glossy surface.

The glaze on bone China is applied with the spray – first with one and then with the other hand. And to be able to control the density and the thickness of the layer, the glaze is colored Magenta. Therefore, going into the oven for final roasting, cups and saucers have bright lilac color. At high temperatures the pigment fade and porcelain white.

The second firing is also lasts 12 hours, only the temperature at this time slightly below – 1050-1150°C.

By the way, the firing temperature of bone China was the reason that the Lomonosov porcelain factory was able to maintain a monopoly on the production of Russian bone China.

Among the Soviet factories had been taken to keep the technology secret, so in the early 70-ies of the technology and design of the equipment was "donated" to Bulgaria, which then starts a new porcelain production. And in 1982, the technology was transferred to a ceramic plant in Kaunas, Lithuania. But the Russian factories do not dare to undertake the production of bone China. The only problem being that the porcelain is very sensitive to the firing temperature and the deviation from preset temperature settings literally 10 degrees makes the dishes in marriage. Thus, when it comes to temperatures over a thousand degrees, even the accuracy of measuring devices may exceed these same 10 degrees. And left the factory the only manufacturer of the "Royal porcelain" on the whole territory of the country.

How does the pattern

Pure white, neraspisannyy porcelain, which are not touched by the hand of the artist, the experts call "linen". But before you get on the shelves of branded stores, tableware should be decorated with a pattern.

Painting on porcelain is underglaze, overglaze, and the combined, combining both of these techniques. In such cases, the pattern is applied in two stages. An example of a combined painting can serve as the famous pattern "Cobalt net", which became a kind of "calling card" of the plant.

Cobalt pattern – blue lines – applied to the porcelain before the coating products glaze – the high-temperature firing, the decor is "sealed" in a transparent glaze tightly. Cobalt, before firing having faded dull black color, when heated, magically changed, and depending on the concentration pattern becomes pale blue or dark blue. By the way, all the colors used in the underglaze behave in the same way – their color, "manifest" during thermal impact and in the drawing they look pale shades of black, grey, brown. And artists who are working with multiple colors at once, have a hard time: they constantly have to "keep in mind" the future picture.

The figure is often applied by hand, but sometimes you can facilitate. At the Imperial porcelain factory, for example, has developed a special form for dishes that will be decorated "cobalt net": on the sides of the crock "drawn" subtle grooves – a kind of circuit that it is necessary to manually "trace" cobalt lines.

Cobalt pattern may popadat on the product and with decals – thin film, reminiscent of the decal on which is printed a cobalt pattern.

Form decal exactly matches the shape of dishes for each model is their own. Upon heating the film burned off, and the pattern imprinted in the surface of the product.

The application of underglaze drawing takes place after the articles have passed the first firing and before glazing applications. After the second firing of this cookware is sometimes looks very strange – it is already done the first part of the mural, and the second is still waiting in the wings. But you can imagine what's going to look like.

Painted gold – it is overglaze painting. Then the dishes will be one more firing, but at lower temperatures – only in order to secure the pattern. It allows to use when painting the precious metals, as well as a paint that can not stand "four-digit" temperatures. Gold stars on company pattern can applied manually by brush or with a miniature stamp.

Advice 5: How to make a methodical study

A methodical study is the center of all the educational work being done in kindergarten. There are teachers ' meetings, consultations for teachers, here teachers use literature and textbooks to study. In large departments of education is a city-wide teaching rooms. Equipment them different from kindergarten, but the principles of design are about the same.
How to make a methodical study
You will need
  • - appropriate room;
  • comfortable and aesthetic furniture;
  • - information stands;
  • - literature on various aspects of pedagogy;
  • - own methodical development of teachers;
  • toys and benefits;
  • - technical training.
Select an appropriate room. Room for methodical study of the kindergarten usually provided by the project. In additional education institutions, schools and departments of education managers often have to decide where the methodology center. This should be a fairly large room that suits your requirements of fire safety. Decide whether you will use it for staff meetings, or any other room. In the first case, in the methodical study should be freely available for all educators.
Design start with painting the walls. Light walls create a happy calm mood. Use cream, beige, pink. Cool colors is not very appropriate.
Very important role plays the choice of furniture. Think about what wardrobes will suit you the most. You can use sectional or wall cabinets, hanging shelves. They must be in the same style. Literature and manuals place so that teachers were comfortable to take them. Keep in mind that visual AIDS and didactic materials will gradually accumulate, so shelf space should be slightly larger than needed at the moment.
For practitioner put a normal Desk. Purchase several coffee tables. They are multi-functional. They can organize exhibitions of new literature, new didactic games, etc., Decide on what is more convenient to sit to the teachers during consultations and meetings. Put a few chairs, a sofa. Should be a few spare chairs.
Decorate the wall. In the methodical study or beside him in the corridor must be an information stand. It educators will find the schedule of consultations, schedule of classes in music and sports hall, the decision of teachers ' meeting, announcements of upcoming seminars, lists of new literature and other relevant information. Make a few more stands. On one you can post photos about the life of the kindergarten, on the other — an exhibition of children's drawings. Do not forget to regularly change the materials.
Think of a place for mini-exhibitions. In the methodical Cabinet of appropriate exhibition of children's crafts new methodological developments, materials for the holidays. You can take such expositions a few shelves.
Place technical training. In the methodical Cabinet are all kinds of projectors, television and radio viewing and listening of children's programs. In many gardens there are already computers and modern multimedia equipment. Place it so that, for example, the presentation and the video could see everything in the Cabinet.
Organize benefits In the methodical Cabinet of the stored demos — a series of paintings, toys for surprise points, samples of the benefits that educators can do yourself or with the children, samples of documentation, and more. Organize it all section by section, activity and age.

Advice 6: How to make stand for parents

Cooperation and preschool educational institutions with parents must be established. This can be achieved in different ways. One of them is the presence of a bench in a children's institution. But how to get it and what especially to pay attention to?
How to make stand for parents
How well-established the reciprocal relationship of the teacher with parents, largely depends on the performance of the educational process. To report the necessary information, share the results achieved, stands are made for parents. The design of the stand is a creative work. How to do it - everyone decides for himself. But keep in mind the important points: the information must be relevant (the data is constantly updated) design, and aesthetic. Try in the design to combine informative material with illustrative.
If stand for parents prepares pre-school teacher, he can make sections such as e.g., "Exhibition of children's works" and "Our life". Place it on the stand children's drawings and crafts, sign. Update the exhibition regularly. Parents will know what the child and be proud of the achievements of the baby. In the section "Our life" you can put photos on the activities carried out or their scripts.
Be sure to put on the stand is important and useful for parents information: phone numbers and addresses of associations, extract from the law on the rights of the child or, for example, the list of documents for obtaining benefits for baby etc. Should also be "Health page". It get the advice of a physician, the vaccination schedule or the date of medical examination. There are making informational materials that promote a healthy lifestyle.
In preschool institution at the booth for parents must necessarily be allocated space for the menu for each day. Into the list entered not only the list of dishes and their weight, ingredients. There you can put information about healthy and wholesome food. Mandatory section "Announcements". Parents should be aware of all planned work with children.
If the stand prepares the teacher for parents of students, along with the above mentioned topics can be informational help, which contains new requirements for the exam or schedule a consultation, as well as the timing of the exam(basic and advanced). Section "Parent meeting" is included as a tutor and teacher. It should be listed the dates and topics scheduled parent meetings. Make also a photo exhibition. It will be interesting to parents and children.
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