# Advice 1: How to calculate ending balance

The balance represents the difference between expenditure and income of the company for a certain period of time. The concept of "ending balance" is used to determine the balance on a specific account at the end of the period and is used, usually, in the preparation of trial balance. The order of calculation is determined by the nature of the analytical and synthetic account.
Instruction
1
Form working capital statement on the accounts of synthetic accounting. It must contain a column with the account name and the three pairs of columns to calculate debit and credit for the initial balance, the turnover for the period and ending balance. Based on the data of the previous reporting period, make the debit and credit figures for the opening balance.
2
Determine the turnover for the reporting period. On the basis of accounting data enter the amounts of the debits and credits for each account. Verify that the amounts match with the primary documentation. Otherwise mistakes can lead to inaccuracies in the abandonment of the annual balance sheet.
3
Analyze the nature of the account for which you want to determine the ending balance. They are divided into active, passive and actively-passive. This must be done because the procedure for calculating the balance at the end of the reporting period, they have different.
4
Calculate the ending balances for active accounts. Income on these accounts is recorded on the debit side and the outflow – credit. When calculating the balance at the end of the month you need to debit initial debit balance to add and subtract momentum credit momentum. The result is the number of beds debit balance on an active account.
5
Calculate the ending balance for all accounts. Reflection of receipts and Disposals for it affects credit and debit, respectively. In this regard, at the end of the reporting period, the credit is calculated the ending balance that is equal to the initial amount of the credit balance and credit turnover less the debit turnover.
6
Determine the ending balance for an active-passive accounts who have both a credit and a debit side. To do this, first it is necessary to sum the initial debit balances and transactions and subtract them from the credit indices. If the resulting value is greater than zero, then it refers to debit the final balance, and if less, then the loan without minus.

# Advice 2: How to determine the active-passive account

Active-passive account is an accountused in accounting, which simultaneously affect the assets or the company assets and liabilities, sources of its formation. Active-passive account has characteristics of both active, and passive the accounta, ie the balance will be reflected on the debit and the credit.
Instruction
1
On the active-passive accountOh considered indicators that can take positive or negative value. For example, at the expense ofe 99 "Profits and losses" reflects the indicator of financial result of the current period. It can take a positive value, and then there is a profit, and negative, in which we talk about the loss.
2
When defining active-passive accountand remember that they he may have unilateral balance (either debit or credit) and bilateral (debit and credit). Account 99 is the expense of one-way balance. When the excess of income over expenditure, i.e. the profit, the balance is reflected on the loan and refers to the liabilities side of the balance because profit is a source of assets. Conversely, in the presence of losses of balance is reflected in the debit account.
3
To active-passive accountof am include the expense of 60 "RAaccounts with suppliers and contractors", 62 "RAaccounts with buyers and customers", 71 "RAaccounts with accountable persons", 75 "RAaccounts with the founders," 76 "RAaccounts with different debtors and creditors", etc.
4
The General scheme of operations in an active-passive accountAh can be represented as follows. On the opening balance on the debit reflects the existence of accounts receivable on the accounting period beginning respectively on the loan – creditor. Turnover on the debit represents an increase of receivables and decrease in payables and, to the contrary, the credit reflects the increase in accounts payable and decrease in receivables.
5
For example, at the expense ofe 60 firm takes into account the RAaccounts with two counterparties. While one of the suppliers made advance payments in the amount of 100 thousand rubles., and the second needs 30 thousand rubles. Thus, the debit accountand will reflected the advance (accounts receivable), credit debt (accounts payable). At the same time remains in an active-passive accountof am are shown in expanded form, as rolled-up amounts can lead to inaccurate presentation of financial statements.
Note
The main active-passive accounts are: 71 "Calculations with accountable persons"; 75 "Calculations with founders"; 76 "Calculations with different debtors and creditors"; of 99 "Profits and losses". Active-passive account can be located both in assets and in liabilities.
Regarding account 99, which were previously regarded as passive, you must say the following: all businesses operating with the main objective of making a profit, but if for some reason they have a loss, in this case the score becomes 99 active-passive. Consider the example of how to keep records of account 99 "Profits and losses".

# Advice 3: How to find balance

Balance (balance) is the main term of accounting. Specialist amounts of the balances on the accounts of the company will assess its economic condition. Understanding how balance is considered, you must calculate the remaining amount of the salary or the balance of the Bank account.
Instruction
1
Accounts for which the accounting is carried out in the organization, can be of three types: active, passive, and a composite active-passive. Accordingly, the balance for each account type is considered for different algorithms. The bookkeeping balance consists of a debit and credit.
2
Balance is always tied to a specific period. In the "pre-computer" era accounting period was a month. Balance primary was postponed from the end of last month, and consider the balance end of the current month had to manually. Now the accounting programs remains displayed on an arbitrary date.
3
An active account. The reporting period begins with accounts that have debit balances (Dbname). Receipt to this account reflect the turnover of debit (Dbopit), and the disposal is in circulation on the loan (Crobat). Ends the reporting period, the counting of the turnover on the debit and the credit and withdrawal ending balance (Dbconnect), which then go into the next reporting month:Dbconnect = Dbname + Dboost – Crobat
4
The reporting period starts from the accounts with credit balances (Krycha). Receipt to this account reflect the turnover on the loan (Crobat), and the disposal is in circulation on the debit side (Dbopit). Ends the reporting period, the calculation of turnover of credit and debit and the terminal end balance (Cranes), which then go into the next reporting month:Cranes = Krachao + Crobat – Dboost
5
Active-passive account. Such accounts, balance has a debit and a credit part. The ending balance appears as follows:If the amount Dbacl – Cracula + Dboost – Crobat greater than zero, it is put in the ending balance on the debit side, the loan is written zero. Otherwise, the minus is removed and the resulting sum is written in the final credit balance, the debit is written zero.
6
In real accounting, each account is assigned its own role. For example, account "Salary". Here the accounting period is often a month. Opening balance for each account is lost, the salary of last month (the debt company), or too much salary in the last month (duty for an employee). Accordingly, it is a debit and a credit part of the opening balance. Count balance ending (in fact, the salary of the current month) to the scheme:a Debt company – Debt for employee + accrued – Deducted.If you get a positive result, you have something to this month.

# Advice 4: How to find the ending balance

Output the final balance of active and passive accounts is fairly easy, knowing the rules. However, we must note that the ending balance in the so-called active-passive accounts is calculated differently.
Instruction
1
So, to find the ultimate balance of active and passive accounts, the balance figure at the beginning of the month negotiable add an indicator on the turnover, which is located in the same part of the bill right under the balance. And subtract working capital indicator, which is on the other side of the account. As a result, you will get the ending balance for the reporting month and the balance index at the beginning of the next month.
2
To simplify, use a formula that briefly displays what is described above: SK = SN ± ( D - K ). SK and SN - initial and final balance, e - debit and credit turnovers. With the active account before the bracket will stand plus, passive - negative.
3
To calculate the ending balance by groups of active and passive accounts intended for settlement relations with various debtors and creditors use a different rule.
4
For this indicator beginning balance fold with a turnover that is listed in the account on the same side, where the opening balance. A positive result will be the ending balance, which is located in the same part of the accounts as primary. Negative would mean that the balance indicator will move to the other side of the account.
5
If you don't have data beginning balance for active-passive account, determine the ending balance by comparing the turnover for the month and reflect in the part of the invoice where a negotiable indicator more. A detailed balance it is impossible to derive the conventional method in an active-passive accounts. This will require the data of analytical accounting.
6
Please note that the universal formula to calculate the ending balance for any accounting account looks as follows: SK = D - K ± SN. The sign of the initial balance will be positive if the value is in the debit of the account, and negative if in the opposite, that is, in the loan.
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