Advice 1: What is the synchrotron

In the mid 50-ies of the last century in the Soviet Union was in full swing work on the ambitious installation, designed for the study of the microcosm. The giant structure was launched in 1957. Soviet scientists were unprecedented at the time the charged-particle accelerator called a synchrotron.
What is the synchrotron

Why the need for a synchrotron



Essentially a synchrotron is a huge installation for the acceleration of charged particles. The speed of the elements in this device are very high, as released by the energy. Getting a picture of the mutual collision of the particles, the scientists can judge the properties of the material world and its structure.

About necessity of creation of accelerator was discussed even before the beginning of the great Patriotic war, when a group of Soviet physicists headed by academician A. Ioffe sent to the Soviet government a letter. It emphasizes the importance of creating a technical base for studying the structure of the atomic nucleus. These issues had already become the Central problem of natural Sciences, their solution would advance the applied science, military Affairs and energy.

In 1949 he started designing the first installation of the proton accelerator. This building was built 1957 in Dubna. The proton accelerator, called the synchrotron", is a structure of enormous dimensions. It is designed as a separate housing research Institute. The main part of the facility area is a magnetic ring with a diameter of about 60 m. It is required to create electromagnetic fields with desired characteristics. In the space of the magnet and the particle acceleration.

The principle of the synchrotron



The first powerful accelerator-the proton synchrotron was originally supposed to construct on the basis of a combination of two principles, before separately used in the Phasotron and synchrotron. The first of the principles – frequency electromagnetic field, the second level change of the magnetic field.

The synchrotron operates on the principle of cyclic accelerator. To guarantee the discovery of a new particle at the same equilibrium orbit, the frequency of the accelerating field changes. The particle beam always comes into the accelerating part of the installation in phase with the electric field of high frequency. Sometimes called synchrotron proton synchrotron with weak focusing. An important parameter of a synchrotron, the beam intensity, which is determined by the number of particles contained therein.

In a synchrotron is almost completely eliminated errors and deficiencies of its predecessor, the cyclotron. Changing the magnetic field and the frequency of recharging the particles, the proton accelerator increases the energy of the particles, directing them on the right course. The creation of this device has revolutionized the field of nuclear physics and was the beginning of a breakthrough in the study of charged particles.

Advice 2: What is the microcosm

All the world is composed of micro, small bricks that form the Universe itself. Planets, stars, water, earth, air, every person – everything is the visible result of an invisible effect. But it can be investigated and understood.
Model of the atom
Micro -, macro -, mega – prefixes for these hides is sometimes huge, and sometimes quite tiny meaning. In this case, micro means very small. So tiny that cannot be seen by simple human eye.

The magic of the microcosm



Strictly speaking, a microcosm – are molecules, atoms, nuclei of atoms, the diversity of elementary particles that you cannot see just. For invasion into this Kingdom requires special techniques and special thin instruments. And as soon as they were developed, it was found that all very difficult. Early in the theory of body mechanics was seen as a solid, which was denied after using the newest research methods. Scientists see molecules.

In turn, they consist of smaller particles-building blocks – atoms. Surprisingly, the number of molecules number of atoms can be very large. And the atoms also turned out to be extremely complex systems. They have electrons and nuclei consisting of different particles – protons and neutrons. The number of electrons in an atom usually equals the number of protons of the nucleus. But there is the possibility for the electrons to move from atom to atom, to secede and join the atom what is a chemical term, valence.

It also happens that elementary particles behave strangely. So a photon, being a unit of light may show properties of both waves and particles. Also there are particles that live only fractions of a second, when through the atmosphere are cosmic rays. Others actively emit energy in the form of radiation.

Smaller than an atom



While the atom was considered indivisible, scientists have quietly studied the properties of molecules and create new materials based on them. Gradually, however, scientific knowledge has expanded and it turned out that there is something smaller than an atom.

Among the most famous of the smallest particles we can mention the PI-meson, muon, neutrino, gluon, and other interesting things. Some of them are well studied. People have learned to get them under laboratory conditions. And there are those particles, which yet is impossible to obtain. They are found in cosmic rays.

Of particular interest to scientists present research at particle accelerators. There are high-speed streams of elementary particles with high energy. At high speed, they collide and form other so-called subcastes. Currently known more than four hundred and discoveries continue.

So the microcosm is gradually revealing its secrets before inquiring mind of man.
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