Advice 1: What is third eyelid

Third eyelid is the nictitating membrane, which exists in some animals. It protects the eyes and hydrates them without losing visibility. Sharks, birds and some reptiles have a full third eyelid. In humans, a vestige of the nictitating membrane is called the lunate fold.
What is third eyelid

Why do I need third eyelid

Half-moon fold (rudiment of the third century) - a vertical fold of mucous membrane (the conjunctiva). It is located at the inner corner of the eyelids and has a small size. This fold is strongly developed among the Negroes and Malays, and may contain cartilage, like centuries. It produces mucus that collects foreign bodies (dust, dirt, causing damage to the cornea). Then they are moved to the tear duct and removed from the eye. Near the lunate fold is the lacrimal caruncle. It does not carry specific functions. Pathology in this region of the eye can cause slezootvedeniya.

Disease the lunate folds and lacrimal caruncle

Diseases of the lacrimal caruncle and the lunate folds are fairly rare. They manifest abnormalities, degenerative changes, inflammation, tumors. Abnormalities of the lunate folds and the lacrimal caruncle are manifested by changes in their form. In some cases there is atrophy of the lunate folds, it can cause epiphora through loss of contact lacrimal point with the liquid.

Anatomically the lacrimal caruncle is the education, the structure comprises including sweat and sebaceous glands, adipose tissue, hair follicles. A person may develop purulent inflammation of the lacrimal caruncle. The disease usually develops quickly and begins with sharp pain and redness in the inner corner of the eye, while there is a fever, some malaise, and headache. The lacrimal caruncle is increasing dramatically in size at the touch painful. Later in its tissues appear purulent plugs that merge, forming an abscess. When the abscess breaks, the inflammation calms down in the next four to five days recovery occurs.

When argyria (pigmentation) lunate folds appear dirty-gray color, covering the eyeball and the conjunctiva of the eyelids. Pathology develops as a result of excessive instillation of eye drops composed of salts of silver (collargol, silver nitrate, protargol). Argyria lunate folds, the lacrimal caruncle has no effect on lacrimal function. Treatment cosmetics is ineffective, since this process is irreversible, the silver particles remove from fabrics is impossible.

Lacrimal caruncle may form benign and malignant tumors. Often dominated by benign tumors (papillomas, adenomas, fibromas) occur polyps, cysts. Of malignant tumors is dominated by melanoblastoma, sarcoma. Lunate fold sometimes formed birthmarks (nevi), which are malformations. In some cases, a tendency towards growth and malignant transformation.

Advice 2: What is cortical atrophy

Cortical atrophy is called the process of destruction of tissue in the cerebral cortex. The development of the disease is associated with age-related changes of structures of the nervous tissues or common pathological processes in the human body. While the disease most often affects the frontal lobes of the brain, but there are cases where the atrophy extends to other structural elements.
What is cortical atrophy
The disease is long-lasting and can develop over several years. The symptoms gradually become more severe and often lead to dementia.

Cortical atrophy is most affects people older than 50 years, but violations may be congenital in nature due to the presence of a genetic predisposition.

Examples of a process that affects both hemispheres of the brain are Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia. Full dementia observed in pronounced form of atrophy. Foci of destruction that has a small size, often do not affect mental abilities.

The reasons for the development

Causes of cortical atrophy are complex. The formation of senile dementia following factors:

- changes in blood supply to the brain tissues because of the low throughput of blood vessels that is characteristic of atherosclerosis;

- poor uptake of oxygen, leading to chronic ischemic phenomena in the nerve tissue;

genetic predisposition to atrophic phenomena;

- the deterioration of the regenerative abilities of the organism;

- reduction of mental stress.

Sometimes atrophic phenomena develop in adulthood. The reasons for such changes can be accompanied by swelling of the brain injury, chronic exposure to toxic substances (alcohol), tumors or cysts, transferred neurosurgical operation.


Manifested symptoms of the disease depend on the stage of the lesion of the cerebral cortex and the prevalence of pathological process. There are several stages in the development of atrophy of the brain:

- asymptomatic stage, during which the existing neurology associated with other diseases (stage 1);

- the emergence of periodic headaches and dizziness (stage 2);

- violation of intellectual and analytical ability, altered speech, habits, and occasional handwriting (stage 3);

- stage 4 there is a violation of a small motility of hands and coordination of movements — a sick man may forget the basic skills (use of toothbrush, the purpose of the TV remote);

- inappropriate behavior and the inability to adapt to social life (the final stage).


Medication-related atrophy of brain pathology is the use of medical drugs, which include:

- means of improving blood circulation and brain metabolism (for example, "Piracetam", "Cerepro", "Ceraxon", "Cerebrolysin"). The supplementation of this group leads to a significant improvement of cognitive abilities;

- antioxidants that have a stimulating effect on regenerative processes that slow down the brain atrophy and stimulate the intensity of metabolism, reacting with free radicals of oxygen;

- drugs that improve blood circulation. Often prescribe the drug "Trental", which has vazodilatiruushimi effect and increases the lumen of capillaries.

Sometimes the disease requires symptomatic therapy. For example, if the patient are headaches, given oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Also in the treatment process you need to follow the neuro-psychological condition of the patient. Required moderate physical activity, systematic Hiking in the fresh air. If the patient's condition can be classified as neurotic, a doctor recommended the reception of light sedatives.

Advice 3: What is homeopathic medicines

Homeopathic medicines are very widely used in the modern world for the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infections. The majority of people using them have no idea of how to act these medicines. So what lurks under the phrase "homeopathic medicines"?
What is homeopathic medicines
Homeopathy is a special system of treatment, developed by German Dr. Samuel Hanemanna. In the late eighteenth century he formulated the basic principles of homeopathy, which since then has not changed.
The main principle of homeopathy is that if a substance causes a symptom of any disease, small doses of this substance have the opposite effect, i.e., eliminate the disease. A classic example is quinine, a substance that is derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree. It causes fever and other symptoms similar to malaria. Accordingly, small doses of this substance from the point of view of homeopathy malaria need to be treated. In other words, "like cures like".
The second of the fundamental principles of homeopathy concerns the ideas about the size of a small doses of the substance. In homeopathy under similar doses understand an infinitely small quantity. The active substance is diluted in water, it is shaken or dinamiteros. Shaking allows water to remember the benefits (energy, essence) of the substance, to gather information. In the water due to infinitesimal dilutions may not be a single molecule of the active substance. To treat this case we use the memory or the information density of the liquid. The higher the dilution of the medicines in homeopathy, the less active substances present in its composition.
As a rule, such water is mixed with ordinary icing sugar or other neutral substance, and obtained from her balls already assigned to the patient. It should be noted that currently, homeopathic medicines can be manufactured in ointments, drops, solutions and even candles.
It is believed that charged water affects not so much on the physical body of man as to its energy field. It is as if this field conveys the correct information. Homeopaths believe that they treat not a disease, but directly to the patient, which is the third principle of homeopathy. That treatment can be more effective, it is not recommended to use more than two drugs.
Unfortunately, to prove the efficacy of homeopathic medicines using the principles of conventional medicine, it is impossible. Homeopathy can be built on the belief or the effect "placebo". Only this can explain why for some people it has a really noticeable effect, allowing you to cope with serious diseases and others does not help.
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