Select the type of filler Foundation
If there is no possibility to invite a specialist, who conducted a geological survey would then have to act themselves. Here are the 3 most important factors that you need to know before you pour the Foundation:
1. The level of groundwater;
2. The heaving of the ground;
3. The weight of the structure.
For example, the water table is shallow, not heavy house - 1 - storey, not of silicate blocks, brick, and beam, frame-panel. Then you can make a low-depth foundations. He goes in depth to 60 cm.
On this type of Foundation is less materials, time, effort to dig a trench, than for buried.
The latter, depending on the groundwater and the weight of the structure may be a depth of 240 cm
Heaving layers of soil – clay, loam – moving. If this layer is small, a suitable low-depth foundations.If they are at a great depth, you will have to fill in the recessed base. Usually in such cases, dig a trench to stable soil layers – sand, rocks, etc.
The technology of creating filler Foundation
It consists of:
- digging trenches;
- the creation of sand-gravel cushion;
- installation of rebar;
- pouring the concrete.
Once you have decided on the type of the filler of the Foundation, you can begin to work. Mark the area of desired size, such as is the home. Hammer at the four corners of the pegs, pull the rope on the perimeter and the diagonal. Align the diagonal.
Now dig a trench for the Foundation, width of 30-50 cm.
In the lower part of the Foundation pours coarse sand layer 10-25 cm, be sure the water is poured out and compacted. Next is a layer of 10-15 cm of gravel.
You can make a mixed pecano-gravel pillow, but not good to forget to stamp it.
It's time for fittings. It need to be set correctly. It consists of iron rods, connected with knitting provoloki. The rods are placed horizontally and vertically at a distance from each other by about 30 cm.
Special attention should be paid to corner mount fittings.
Then it is necessary to build the formwork form, which then will be poured concrete. Basically it is hardwood – wide-plank. They are placed horizontally along the entire length and width of the trench and also on top. If the Foundation is high, the boards of the formwork necessary external backup from a small dostochek.
If possible, it is possible to rent a car concrete the desired amount and pour it over the Foundation. If not, the solution is prepared independently. The correct solution consists of:
- 5 parts gravel;
- 3 parts sand;
- 1 part cement;
- 10 parts of water.
Pour the Foundation for better cement M400. First mix cement with sand, pour water, stir thoroughly, add gravel and pour over the minimum number of times. Then, tamp with vibrator and leveled the building with a trowel.
After the Foundation is covered, its surface is moistened with water periodically to avoid cracks and cover with burlap. The concrete should be well harden for 30-45 days, and only after that it is possible to further construction work.