The color and properties of platinum
The name "platinum" has acquired due to its similarity of appearance with silver. Silver Spanish "plata", and "platina" is translated as small, light silver, "serebristo". Platinum has a silvery-white color, sometimes with grayish tint. It can be found in nature in pure form as gold nuggets and ore composition. The density of platinum is also very high of 21.45 g/CC For comparison, the density of gold is 19.3 g/cubic cm
If by itself, platinum is silvery-white, why been types of a few other colors? The fact is that the nuggets of platinum is rarely "clean" as a rule, they are the impurities that determine the color of the metal. In the composition of the impurities may be iron, copper, iridium, palladium, rhodium and other metals. Additionally, sometimes the very jewelers create alloys of platinum with other precious metals.
For example, for settings of precious stones often used platinum, which is silver, gold or copper. Accordingly, the hue of the metal can be yellowish or reddish. Tungsten and palladium, which can also be components of the platinum alloy, changing its color to bright white or silver grey.
In Russia, a popular are samples of platinum 850, 900, 950. Sample 950 means that the creation of jewelry was taken, which is 95% platinum and 5% of various impurities.
Platinum samples 850 and 900 is not typically used for jewelry, and for technical purposes, for example, for medical.
Due to the fact that platinum is most often in alloys with additional components, the metal is almost impossible to distinguish by eye from silver or white gold. Should be guided by the sample, the milking of platinum is "PT 950", "900 PT", "PT 850". And here's a sample of 750 means that you don't see platinum and white gold.
The history of platinum
For a long time, platinum was unpopular, it was valued twice lower than silver. The reason is that the Spanish traveller who discovered it in South America, noticed that platinum is very refractory. This was a serious barrier to the use of metal in those days, so platinum was recognized unsuitable.
But as soon as the goldsmiths noticed as well platinum alloyed with gold, its value has increased significantly, but only among the jewelers who mixed this metal with gold, which is cheaper than pure gold, and the density of he is not inferior. But over time, this "technology" was discovered, platinum was banned for import to Spain, and its stock dropped in the sea.
In the past platinum was highly prized by the ancient Egyptians and Incas.
In France platinum was more fortunate. Louis XVI considered it the only metal worthy of royalty, and royalty. The reason is that platinum is virtually impossible to scratch, it is not subject to corrosion. Any chemicals that will damage the gold and silver, will leave platinum untouchable. Platinum strength bypasses all the other precious metals, it is possible to work only with Aqua Regia.
Advice 2 : Looks like platinum
Platinum is one of the most expensive precious metals, which naturally makes it a frequent subject of fakes. Fortunately, there are simple methods to verify its authenticity.
It happens when the person is still some sort of family heirloom, considering it a real jewel. For example, he was able to inherit a platinum ring from a close relative. At some point, naturally there is a desire to test the nobility of its origin. Following are the simple methods of authentication of platinum in the home.
Weight of platinum
To verify the authenticity of platinum, weigh the product and compare this weight with the weight of the ornaments of the same size out of gold or silver. Platinum is much heavier than their noble brethren. If you look on the column density of metals, you will see that the heavier the platinum is only iridium and osmium. Also close is the density of rhenium and uranium.
Jewelry made of platinum are made of an alloy of 850, 900 and 950, that is, they are 85, 90 and 95% pure platinum alloy. The same gold and silver products have a much lower content of pure alloy, which once again increases the difference in weight between them and platinum. Weight of platinum similar weight metal alloys meaningless, since, in practice, Iry, osmium and uranium are not cheaper than platinum, and prevalence is hardly less common.
The resistance of platinum
Platinum is resistant to any household chemicals. This means that the platinum product, it is impossible to leave no traces of acetic acid or iodine solution or hydrogen peroxide.
Platinum does not oxidize in contact with air and water, as it is extremely inert and doesn't react to the impact of any acids or alkalis (unless heated). It dissolves only slowly in concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acid and liquid bromine.
Platinum cannot be melted by domestic burners, lighters, with the flame under ordinary gas stove or over a campfire. In any such heating of platinum does not change its color. This alloy is generally characterized by extreme refractoriness. This is one reason why platinum is so long remained inaccessible luxury for the mass industry and the jewelry industry.
The most acceptable way to determine the authenticity of platinum, is to measure its density. Simply measure the weight of the item in grams and determine the amount of water it displaces when submerged (water measure in cubic centimeters). Then measure the weight in grams and divide by obtained from the previous measurement value. If you get a figure close to 21,45, so the product is genuine.