Advice 1: How to know the temperature of the water in the river

Hydrological studies include a whole range of observations of the rivers. Experts determine the condition of the bottom, the water level in the river, the excitement on its surface. The easiest way to find out what the temperature of the water in the river, – carrying out special measurements. Stationary gauges such evidence is removed, usually two times a day.
How to know the temperature of the water in the river

The device for measuring water temperature

To find the temperature of the water in the river, using different types of thermometers. They may be mercury, electrical or electronic. Since the measured parameter on the surface of the river is different from the temperature at depth, in different cases, use different types of devices – surface and deep thermometers.

The easiest way to find out what the temperature in the surface layers of the river. Such measurements are the traditional mercury device or its more sophisticated counterpart, which is also called the spring thermometer. Common household measuring tool, it is sufficient to drop into a bucket filled with water collected with the water surface.

A spring thermometer is more convenient. It is composed of a special tank surrounded by insulating material which protects the mercury from the action of temperature after removing the device from the water. Such thermal protection may be made of cork or rubber. Often spring thermometer inserted into the frame of the metal.
The readings are not removed immediately, but after two or three minutes the thermometer in the water.

To determine the temperature at considerable depths of the river used mercury thermometer breaking type. It consists of two parts. Primary and secondary thermometers are connected together and inserted in a tube of thick glass. Take readings in the open air, introducing an amendment which is calculated on a scale auxiliary device. Today is also increasingly used thermometers electric and electronic type.

How to measure the temperature of the water in the river

Measure the temperature of the water in the river at the same time fixed gauges or hydrological stations. If during the day observed strong fluctuations of temperature of air and water, there are also additional observations.
The temperature at considerable depths is determined by a special program, especially if studies on the formation of surface ice coverage or depth of ice.

The measurement are mercury, electrical or electronic devices, which have a higher accuracy. The results of the measurements bring to the table on the basis of which specialists build graphs of fluctuations of water temperature in the observation point.

The processed and summarized information is sent to the regional national weather, where they can obtain upon request. Such information is useful for organizations that are on rivers and commercial operations. Separate monitoring centers publish on their websites information about the temperature of the water in large rivers. As example, the information portal of the Volgograd weather center where is regularly published data about the temperature of the Volga near the river port.

Extra keys: Samara, Samar, tomorrow, good, what (the system does not see it)

Advice 2: How to know the water temperature

Today to know the temperature of water, in General, it is easy. Became possible quite a long time, around the beginning of the 18th century - just at the time it was invented the temperature scale. But even the ancients were able not just to distinguish hot water from cold, but with an accuracy of a degree to determine the temperature.
How to know the water temperature
The first instrument for measuring temperature was invented in the 16th century by Galileo and it was called a thermoscope. The instrument used was the property of gas to change its volume when heated and cooled, however, the testimony of such a device was fairly inaccurate and is not expressed, alas, in numerical form.
Had to think on the improvement of the device. Here and invented the temperature scale. However, a temperature scale, scientists did not come immediately, she appeared only in 1927 and is still further improved.
Today we use to measure the water temperature scale, which was adopted in 1990. But she has a different unit of measurement is the familiar degree Celsius (C) and degrees Fahrenheit (F used in the United States and England) and Kelvin (K), named for the names of the scientists who worked on the creation of the scale.
The difference in scales is reflected in the fact that zero they have taken different temperatures. As you well know, in the Celsius scale 0° is adopted, the temperature of the freezing point of water and 100° C corresponds to the boiling point of the same water.
But for the Kelvin scale for the reference point adopted a much lower temperature – absolute zero, i.e. the lowest temperature for the physical body. Quite different is the case with the scale of Fahrenheit - here 0° is adopted, the temperature at which the melted mixture of snow and liquid ammonia, and 100° is adopted, the temperature of the human body.
To summarize. From the foregoing, it is clear that to measure the water temperature using the thermometer (the thermometer).
However, there are cases when even with the help of this easy to operate device can not determine the temperature. It happens when you "here" and water "out there", far away and to her "get" the thermometer is practically impossible, but very necessary.
In this case, try to construct a device for measuring the temperature of the water yourself. For example, you need to know the temperature of the water in the garden shower.
Take the metal canister small volume (0.5 l) and attach to it a hermetically sealed, thin tube of elastic material, but the best metal. To the free end of the tube attach one "U"-shaped glass.
At the moment when the soul is in the tank the cold water, pour into a tube slightly colored water (add a few drops of machine oil to the "blockage" of water in the tube), then pridruzite spray ballast (not surfaced).
When the temperature of the water in the tank the liquid will be heated with canned air displaced from the tube and set at a certain level. Programmiruya scale, and you can easily find out the temperature of the water in the barrel soul.

Advice 3: Where can I find accurate weather forecast

Weather often forces us to cancel appointments and summer trips to barbecues, tightening the sun with clouds at the wrong time. Early weather forecasts were read in Newspapers and heard on the radio, now found in online publications and on the websites of the meteorological services.
Where can I find accurate weather forecast
In search of accurate weather forecasting, you can go through a dozen sites, but the truth is always hidden in the analysis of multiple sources simultaneously - methods of weather forecasting are based on probabilistic and statistical data that sometimes can be incomplete. The older the source the more and it stands for the experience of determining the weather, the more likely the correct result.

Russian meteorite

Leader in weather forecasting in Russia is the website Gismeteo. It is recommended to friends for informative forecasts often true. On this website you can see the layout for hours, days, weeks and within a month, to see the maps of precipitation and air temperature over different regions of the country and find information about the geomagnetic atmosphere, which is especially important for people suffering from weather dependent. A brief excerpt from the weather forecast is on the left side of the main page and catches the eye immediately upon entering the site it is possible to find the current temperature in your region, humidity, pressure, wind and water temperature, if the city has a river or out to sea. The city is defined automatically but you can change it if you want to see the weather in another place. The site has the ability to download mobile apps and add-ons to popular browsers (Mozilla, Opera, Google Chrome) that will allow you to obtain weather information before visiting the site.

Weather forecasts provides and Yandex, focusing primarily on current forecasts for the day and the week. Under detailed information it provides four temperature measurements for each day (morning, afternoon, evening, night), moon phase, pressure, humidity and wind force. The bonus of this service is the convenient integration of Yandex.Weather Yandex.Cards, allowing you to see the quick summary for the weather layout on different points of the city and even neighboring cities.

Less popular are Meteonovosti website and online magazine Mediaweb.<url>.

Foreign meteorite

From foreign sites with weather forecasts is the most trusted Intellicast, primarily related to the United States, but is monitoring the weather around the world. Its advantage - a huge database of countries and cities, it is perfect to predict the weather on your vacation, for example, in Egypt and around the Mediterranean sea.

The Weather service pertaining to the American Weather Channel, too, focused on America and not always able to accurately determine your location in Russia or Ukraine. His specialty - not only weather forecasts, but also news about the weather - its features, accidents and disasters in different parts of the world.
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