# Advice 1: How to calculate sales

At this stage of market relations development for virtually every enterprise is becoming an important knowledge of the optimum volume of sales of goods, works or services.
You will need
• General knowledge of economic analysis
Instruction
1
First we need to define what is meant by "sales". The volume of sales is a comprehensive concept which includes all revenue received by the company for the sale of goods, works or services during the reporting period. To accurately determine the amount of sales necessary to rely on the notion of net sales. Net sales will be equal to the total cost of the realized goods, works or services, net of the realized goods, works or services on credit.

In the first place to calculate sales a look at common formula for calculating this value:

Rt(P) = TxP where:

Rt – total revenues;

P – amount of the issue;

T – the number of products sold.

From this formula it follows that Rt (total revenue) depends entirely on the volume of output (P) of goods, works or services and rates (T) on them.
2
But if we consider an example of a firm with perfect competition policy, we get that T = const. In the second case, we obtain a model in which a function depends on the number of products sold.
3
And for the conclusion of drafting the perfect formula of calculating the volume of sales, we note that when calculating, consider the magnitude of total costs. Because the total cost depends entirely on the volume of production, i.e., costs increase according to the increase in production. In the end, we conclude that the volume of sales of goods, works or services by the company depends on volume of release of the goods, works or services, i.e., the number of sales of the company for a certain period is set by the number of produced goods.

C(P) = Rt(P)-Ct(P), where:

C(P) – volume of sales;

CT(P) – total costs.
Note
When planning sales, it is impossible to focus on a large number of release of goods, works or services. Because of the immense increase of production, increases costs, which can lead not only to reduced profits, but also cause losses.
In the calculation of the optimum volume of sales, the main is choosing the right volume of goods, works or services in which the company will receive the maximum profit for a given period.

# Advice 2: How to calculate the amount of work

Job is to perform any actions aimed at the development and benefit of civilization. If we talk about the construction, for the proper organization of production is necessary to calculate the volume of work. That later will be incorporated in the final cost to the consumer. How do you do it?
Instruction
1
Calculate the volume of works in construction. Today it is the largest amount. Review of project materials and place them in a convenient order for quick search. Divide the documentation into groups separately for underground and surface.
2
Calculate the volumes of work in a specific order: first count for openings in the outer walls, then to internal, then the work of the walls, the Foundation, any earthworks, floors, all ceilings, roof, staircases, balconies, various overhangs and porch. Proceed to the estimates of works internal and external decoration.
3
Use the specifications on the various materials used: concrete, wood, electrical, etc. in Other words, determine the rate of flow in appropriate units: cubic metres, square, linear, etc.
4
Calculate each of the works on the basis of the market value of one unit. For example, painting one square meter or strip per meter of cable. Consider the imposition of double and triple layers when working with finishing materials.
5
Calculate the volume of construction works by using special computer programs, for example, CADWizard that clearly and accurately make an estimate. Select a drawing, select it and the program will count the entire amount of work in this area. Set real scale, putting only the value of one element of the drawing, for example, walls.
6
Calculate the amount of mechanical work not related to construction. Here, everything is easier. Select the basis for any piece of work (volume). Take it as a unit, for example, loading and unloading of one machine, the number pasted up leaflets, the production of one part, etc. Guide the count of such units, where the work is completely done.
7
Determine the amount of mental work. First, clearly set goals, as detailed as possible. Then at the end of the allotted time, go through the points whose objectives are fulfilled. Determine the percentage amount of work performed to the task. Please note that some items may be more labor-intensive, and therefore require more time.
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