Advice 1: How to identify rickets in a child

In most cases, rickets develops in the first year of life of the child, and parents should have an idea about its early signs, and prevention and treatment. This disease occurs at lower contents in the body calcium necessary for bone growth. The reason for this is insufficient amounts of vitamin D.
How to identify rickets in a child
You will need
  • - air baths in the sun;
  • - vitamin D (after consultation with a doctor).
Instruction
1
Vitamin D is formed due to UV sun rays. It activates calcium absorption in the intestine, its coupling with phosphorus and further deposition in the bones. When vitamin D deficiency of calcium becomes less than required for the body of the child. Because of this, bone crumbs become soft and can easily deform. In the result, we view the curvature of the legs, the irregular shape of the thorax and of the head and changes in the bones of the pelvis (the girls in the future, it may adversely affect the process of childbirth).
2
Rickets is often manifested in children in the second month of life in preterm – even earlier). The child becomes irritable, sweating a lot, not sleeping well. Sweat causes itching, especially strong in the neck; the baby turns the head, leading to baldness. In severe cases, the baby may grow "ricketsMATIC bump associated with a reduction in tone of muscles.
3
Under the influence of ricketsand bone growth (especially in the lower limbs slows down. The child will lag behind the norm for growth. Body proportions can be wrong.
4
The pediatrician at the reception can see softening the edges of the Fontanelle and the occipital bone, and flattening of the skull. The doctor should recommend a treatment to softening of bones has not led to the formation of "furrows" in the lower part of the thorax and the curvature of the legs. O-shaped deformity of legs for three to four years usually disappears, however, X-shaped ("Stockhausen knees") often remains for life.
Useful advice
For the prevention and treatment of rickets vitamin D is used in the form of an aqueous or oil solution. The total dose and schedule of administration shall appoint a medical worker. Also very important to have regular walks, massage and gymnastics. In summer, on Sunny days, the child should arrange air baths in the morning for 15 to 30 minutes.

Advice 2: Looks like rickets

Rickets is a disease resulting from insufficient intake of vitamin D , leading to bone tissue and the nervous system. Suffer from rickets children of chest and younger age.
Looks like rickets
Instruction
1
Rickets is a fairly common disease, according to statistics, in Russia suffer up to 20% of children. The disease occurs more frequently in children living in the Northern regions and major cities. Vitamin D is necessary for the human body, especially growing, as it participates in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, promotes better calcium absorption, its deposition in bones and is essential for the normal formation of bone tissue.
2
There are two causes of rickets - insufficient intake of vitamin D in the diet and lack of UV rays (under their influence the formation of vitamin D in the skin). Therefore, often suffer from rickets children born in autumn and winter. Also, rickets may occur in certain diseases of the bowel (when there is malabsorption of vitamin D) and treatment with anticonvulsants.
3
The first signs of rickets is a sleep disorders (sleep becomes shallow with frequent awakenings), sweating and baldness of head. Sweating can be so strong that the pillow becomes wet. Sticky sweat irritates the scalp, the child becomes restless, constantly turns his head, and so is wiping the hair on his head. Older children become whiny and irritable, decreased appetite.
4
Almost all children there is a decrease in muscle tone, parents notice that the stomach of child becomes wide and flattened ("frog" belly). For these children is characterized by late closure of the fontanel and the later eruption of primary teeth, they erupt in the wrong order, and further affected by caries.
5
If rickets is not to be treated in time, affects the bone tissue changes the bones of the skull, chest and extremities. The feet of these children take X-shaped or O-shaped and are often deformed pelvis - later it may become an obstacle for a normal delivery. On the lower part of the sternum appears impression, and in severe cases protrusion of the sternum (chicken breast).
6
On the edges where they connect to the sternum appear thickenings (beads), skull these children become disproportionately large, grow frontal and parietal tuber, the head takes the form of a cube. In severe cases, affects the liver and spleen. You can see that abdominal pain, frequent regurgitation, in older children - vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, often develop anemia.
7
Rickets often results in a delay of physical development - children begin to crawl, walk much later than their healthy peers. If the disease is not treated, it leads to irreversible consequences - scoliosis, flat feet, foot deformities and the formation of myopia at school age.

Advice 3: How to treat rickets in children

Rickets is a disease of the whole organism, which is accompanied by a lesion of bone, nervous and muscular systems. The disease develops as a result of vitamin D deficiency and disturbances in the metabolism. Treatment of rickets in children should be comprehensive. Therapy should begin when the first symptoms of the disease.
How to treat rickets in children
Instruction
1
Treatment of rickets appointed by the pediatrician. Treatment and prevention should be carried out in several directions. First, is the use in the diet of baby foods most rich in vitamin D. secondly, the appointment of drugs to fill the deficit of this vitamin. In addition, the creation of conditions under which all the incoming vitamin D would have learned the most.
2
Nutrition plays a vital role in the prevention and treatment of rickets. It should be balanced, that is, to fully meet the needs of the child in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and vitamins. Newborn baby for optimal breastfeeding. If the baby receives artificial feeding, you need to give preference to the milk mixture, which is as close in composition to women's milk. It is important to introduce into your baby's diet vegetable and fruit juices and purees, cereals, meat, cheese. This will help ensure adequate intake of complete proteins. Avoid excessive consumption of bread, flour products and fat, because they interfere with the absorption of calcium in the intestine. Particularly rich in vitamin D such as mackerel, salmon, dairy products, butter, cheese, egg yolk.
3
Equally important is well-organized day regimen and sufficient stay of the child in the fresh air. Children it takes at least 2-3 hours daily. But we should remember that the skin of babies is very sensitive to UV rays, so children first year of life, direct sunlight is contraindicated. Enough walking in the shade of the trees.
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In the treatment of rickets is necessarily the use of preparations of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus. The dosage and duration of drug therapy is determined by the physician based on the age and severity of the disease. Recently, doctors prefer drugs vitamin D3, mainly its soluble forms (e.g., "ease of use"). They are better absorbed in the intestine and have a more prolonged effect in comparison with oil solutions. The correct calculation of the therapeutic dose is very important, as overdose can lead to the development of hypervitaminosis D. While there is weakness, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, joint pain, convulsions, slow pulse, difficulty breathing. If after a few days of taking these drugs, the child begins to refuse to eat, nausea or vomiting, you need to go to the doctor. After treatment of vitamin D the baby is transferred to long-term use of prophylactic doses of 400 IU per day. In addition, the treatment of rickets appointed multivitamin preparations.
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Complex therapy of rickets also includes massage and gymnastics, especially great is their value when the residual phenomena. As helper methods designate salt and pine baths, a course of 10-12 procedures. Salt baths shown loose, fat children, and coniferous – nervous, thin, with a reduced appetite.

Advice 4: How to identify a hernia in a child

Hernias are found in approximately 30% of children and often appear umbilical and inguinal hernias, boys and girls. The causes of this disease are genetic predisposition, a variety of effects on the fetus during pregnancy and hormonal imbalance of the mother and child. Timely detection of herniation depends on the further success of her treatment.
How to identify a hernia in a child
Instruction
1
In inguinal hernia the tissue or organ come out from the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal. The boys part of the contents may descend into the scrotum. Inguinal hernia is manifested most often in children aged six months to two years. It can be detected when crying, anxiety of the child or raising them with heavy items.
2
Define inguinal hernia is quite simple. In the period of activity of the kid in the groin or inguinal-scrotal region is formed swelling. If the resulting swelling a little pressure, then it vanishes hernia reduce. Usually parents find themselves inguinal hernia. If you have any suspicions, consult a doctor. Sometimes the hernia is very similar to a cyst of the spermatic cord or hydrocele. To diagnose the disease, the doctor usually appoints an ultrasound.
3
An umbilical hernia occurs more often in newborns. It manifests itself in the protrusion in the umbilical region, which can easily reduce a into the abdominal cavity when pressure is applied. An umbilical hernia appears during crying, screaming. The development of umbilical hernias contribute to frequent constipation, prolonged crying, rickets, reduced muscle tone.
4
For small hernia (1.5 cm), it can be almost invisible. To define it is possible only pushing the navel of the child. The finger thus "fail" in the abdominal cavity, and you can easily find out the size of the hernia. If the umbilical hernia is large, in the navel area is constantly visible swelling, which increases with crying.
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Sometimes in the first months of baby's life a hernia may increase. However, do not panic. As a rule, the umbilical hernia goes away on its own without surgical intervention. For surgical treatment is resorted to, if the umbilical ring is not delayed by 5-7 years of age. Traditionally, umbilical hernia treated with massage, frequent vykladyvaniya on the tummy, gymnastics.
Note
Inguinal hernia represents the output of the internal organs of the abdominal cavity in the border of the anterior abdominal wall through the inguinal canal. These internal organs can be the intestines, ovaries, omentum. Inguinal hernia external signs is a tumor in the groin, the so-called protrusion. To determine an accurate diagnosis and identify the presence of inguinal hernia by inspection of the surgeon.
Useful advice
Patients concerned about pain in the hernia, in the stomach, feeling of discomfort when walking. The examination of the patient in vertical position gives an idea of the asymmetry of the inguinal regions. If there is bulging of the abdominal wall can determine its size and shape.

Advice 5: How to determine narrow pelvis

The presence of a normal pelvis is one of the main conditions of the proper course of labour. Narrow pelvis makes it difficult genera, and sometimes are viewed as insurmountable obstacles when the promotion of the fetal head through the birth canal is suspended. According to statistics, anatomically narrow pelvis is considered to be a pelvis in which one or all of its dimensions are shorter than in normal sizes of 15 – 20 or more millimeters.
How to determine narrow pelvis
Instruction
1
To define a narrow pelvis there are several methods.
History. At the first appointment with a gynecologist you need to collect history data. Tell him about previous illnesses: rickets, bone tuberculosis, injuries of the pelvis and hip joints, osteomyelitis, prolonged infectious diseases, have occurred in childhood. If you have already given birth, report the previous birth, their duration, the possibility of stimulation of labor activity, the health of the unborn child, its weight and type of delivery.
2
An external examination. Give the doctor the opportunity to conduct a General inspection, including the collection of data on the physical development, growth, and body mass, proportionality of a Constitution, changes in the skeleton and other. Of particular importance for defining a narrow pelvis is the shape of the abdomen. When anatomically narrow pelvis in nulliparous women, she can be spiky, multiparous – pendulous.Measurement of the pelvis is a tool tanamera. Mainly for the inspection is sufficient the following measurements: measurement distance, kristrom, spinarum and trehantiria, as well as the measurement of external conjugates.Know that the outer measure may not fully reflect the structural features of the small pelvis, and its shape and dimensions are approximate values. It is therefore not only based on similar methods of determination. More effective are the internal examination, ultrasound and Rangeability.
3
A vaginal examination. This inspection provides information about the capacity of the pelvis, pelvic eliminates different strain – tumor projections. The doctor will measure your diagonal conjugate and calculate the true. On examination, the midwife pays attention to the entire area of the pelvis, especially the sacral form of a rhombus (or rhomb of Michaelis).
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Interoperbility. The final diagnosis of anatomically narrow pelvis , you can install on x-ray. The indications for it are: contraction of the external dimensions of the pelvis, his injuries and trauma hip joints, childhood rickets or polio. If you have a height less than 155 cm, you are part of a group of women with a narrow pelvis.Your doctor may send you to interoperabiltiy if there are suspicions on the disproportion between the fetal head and maternal pelvis. These include: large fruit, unsuccessfully risen its head, its long standing in one cavity of the pelvis , or other complications.Digital interoperabiltiy carried out in the late 3rd trimester, no later than 2 weeks before the expected birth or during them. During the procedure you lie on your back or side. This allows you to learn the shape of the sacrum, pubic and other bones. You will measure the direct and transverse dimensions of the pelvis and their ratio with the head size of the fetus.
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Ultrasound. Ultrasound of small pelvis inferior to his informative x-ray examination, it can only determine the true conjugate of the pelvis, the size of the fetal head and its location, and giving the degree of cervical dilatation.Remember that the structure of the pelvis is key to passing and birth outcomes. Therefore, knowing its shape and size, you and your physician can predict the course of childbirth, to take into account possible complications and methods of delivery.
Useful advice
Narrow pelvis mothers is no longer a sentence. Important is the timely implementation of the necessary measurements. Be aware of the seriousness of the situation at the right time to contact a fertility clinic.
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