Advice 1: How to solve genetic tasks in biology

In the school course of biology in high school you must have met, or will meet genetic goals. Genetics is a very interesting science. It studies the laws of variation and heredity. Representatives of any of the species reproduce like themselves. However, there is no identical individuals, all descendants to a greater or lesser extent differ from their parents. Genetics, as a science, makes it possible to predict and analyze the transmission of hereditary characteristics.
How to solve genetic tasks in biology
Instruction
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To solve genetic problems using certain types of research. The method of hybridological analysis was developed by G. Mendel. It allows you to identify patterns of inheritance of individual traits in sexual reproduction of organisms. The essence of this method is simple: in the analysis of certain alternative characteristics traced their transmission to the offspring. Also be an accurate account of the occurrence of each alternative basis and the nature of each individual offspring.
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Basic patterns of inheritance have also been developed by Mendel. The scientist gave the three laws. In consequence of their so called Mendel's laws. The first is the law of uniformity of hybrids of the first generation. Take two heterozygous individuals. When crossing they will give two types of gametes. The offspring of such parents appear in the ratio 1:2:1.
P - parents, G - gametes; F1 - offspring.
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The second law of Mendel is the law of segregation. based on his assertion that the dominant gene suppresses the recessive is not always. In this case, not all individuals are among the first generation reproduce the characteristics of the parents - there is a so-called intermediate inheritance. For example, when crossed homozygous plants with red flowers (AA) and white flowers (AA) is obtained offspring with pink. Incomplete dominance is quite common. It is also found in some biochemical characteristics of a person.
How to solve genetic tasks in biology
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The third and last law - the law of the independent combination of traits. For the manifestation of this law is necessary to observe several conditions: there should be a lethal gene, dominance should be complete genes reside on different chromosomes.
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Stand out tasks on the genetics of sex. There are two types of sex chromosomes: X chromosome (female) and Y chromosome (male). Floor having two identical sex chromosomes, called homogametic. Gender, determined by different chromosomes, called heterogametes. Gender of future individuals is determined at the moment of fertilization. In sex chromosomes, in addition to genes that carry information about a field contained other not having anything to do with it. For example, the gene responsible for blood clotting, carries the female X chromosome. Sex-linked traits are passed from mother to sons and daughters of the father only to daughters.

Advice 2: How to solve problems in biology

All tasks in biology are divided into tasks in molecular biology and challenges in genetics. In molecular biology there are several themes that have tasks: proteins, nucleic acids, DNA and energy metabolism.
How to solve problems in biology
Instruction
1
Solve tasks on "Proteins" using the following formula: m(min) = a/b*100%, where m(min) is the minimum molecular weight, a is the atomic or molecular weight of the component b – percentage component. The average molecular weight of one acid residue is 120.
2
Calculate the required value for the topic "Nucleic acids", adhering to the rules Chargaff:1.The amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, and guanine – cytosine;
2.The number of purine bases equals the number of pyrimidine bases, i.e., A+G = T+C. In the chain of the DNA molecule the distance between the nucleotides is equal to 0.34 nm. Relative molecular mass of one nucleotide is equal to 345.
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Tasks on the theme of "DNA Code" to solve it with the help of a special table of genetic codes. Thanks to it you will learn what acid encodes a particular genetic code.
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Calculate the desired response for tasks on the theme "Energy exchange" reaction equation. One of the most frequent is: is c6h12o6 + 6О2 → 6СО2 + 6Н2О.
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Find the solution of problems on genetics based on a special algorithm. First, define which genes are dominant(A, b) and which recessive(a,b). Is called a dominant gene, the symptom of which is shown in homozygous (AA, AA) and heterozygous state(AA, Bb). Is called a recessive gene, the characteristic which occurs only at the meeting of their genes, ie, in a homozygous state. For example, pea plants with yellow seeds crossed with a pea plant with green seeds. Received of pea plants all had yellow seeds. It is obvious that yellow seed is the dominant trait. Write down the solution of this task : A – the gene responsible for yellow seeds and the gene responsible for green seeds.P: AA x aa
G: A, A
F1: Assistaut tasks of this type with several characteristics, then one sign of label A or A, and second B or B.
Note
Tasks are an integral part of the whole biology course and it is very important to be able to solve them.

Advice 3: How to solve problems in genetics

In the study of genetics, much attention is given to problems whose solution must be found using the laws of inheritance of genes. Most of the natural Sciences, the task of genetics seems to be one of the most difficult things in biology. However, it is a simple algorithm.
How to solve problems in genetics
You will need
  • tutorial.
Instruction
1
Start, carefully read the task and write a brief, schematic manner, the condition using special characters. Mark, what are the genotypes of their parents, and how they correspond to the phenotype. Write down what out children in first and second generations.
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Note which gene is dominant and which recessive, if it is in the condition. If the objective of this splitting, also specify it in the schematic entry. For simple problems in genetics sometimes a correct record the condition, to understand the decision task.
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Proceed to the solution. Note again the incident crossing: the genotypes of the parents, the resulting gametes and the genotypes (or the expected genotypes) of children.
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For the successful solution of the problem you need to understand which section it belongs: monohybrid, digibridge or polygyridae crossing, inheritance, sex-linked or a sign is inherited in the interaction of genes. To do this, count the splitting of the genotype or the phenotype observed in the offspring in the first generation. The condition can be specified the exact number of individuals with each genotype or phenotype, or the percentage of each genotype (phenotype) of the total. These data should lead to simple numbers.
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Please note, does not vary if the offspring characteristics in relation to sex.
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Each type of crossing characterized by its specific cleavage of the genotype and the phenotype. All these data are contained in the textbook, and you will be convenient to write these formulas on a separate sheet of paper and use them in solving problems.
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Now that you have discovered fission, the principle of which is the transmission of hereditary traits in your task, you can read the genotypes and phenotypes of all individuals in the offspring and the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents involved in crossing.
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Record the obtained data in response.

Advice 4: How to make a study of biology

Tastefully decorated classrooms increases students ' interest in the subject, creates a comfortable learning atmosphere. How to make a study of biology so that students gladly come to him for lessons, and the teacher was comfortable teaching in this room?
How to make a study of biology
Instruction
1
Create a themed stands on one of the side walls of the Cabinet. They can wear the title: "Evolution of Earth", "the anatomy of a cell", "Save for posterity, etc. Some stands can be equipped with removable panels. Make a stand with the student work: essays, reports, drawings, interesting photos of nature etc., Use the portable booth with literature on the subject with the aim of increasing students ' interest in biology.
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Use in the design of the study of biology portraits of famous scientists: Charles Darwin, Timiryazev, I. M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov and others.
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Install in Cabinet TV with DVD player and educational CDs to students to watch educational films on the subject.
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Decorate a biology classroom living vegetation: it can be flowers, citrus and palm trees grown in tubs. It is better to choose these plants to decorate the class that can be used as demonstration material in class.
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Create a lively area in the study of biology: in it place the fish, bring hamster or a turtle; you can do one aquarium.
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Keep visual AIDS that are used as learning tools in biology lessons (collections, herbaria, models, etc.) on the shelves of cabinets or on separate shelves outboard. The table and the most fragile and valuable materials (instruments, models, wet preparations, etc.) stored in closed cabinets.
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Select the overall color scheme of the Cabinet in accordance with natural colors. For example, the walls and curtains can be in various shades of green, the panels painted in beige color which will resonate with the color of the furniture.
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Draw on the ceiling of the Cabinet of natural ornament with large colored circles (e.g., flowers), which can be used during physical exercises to train your eyes.
Useful advice
Encourage students seeking to decorate the office with biology their craft, drawings, etc., develop their sense of taste and love of nature.
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