Advice 1: How to lay natural stone

Natural stone is perfect for decoration, as the facades and walls or any other vertical surfaces inside the home or apartment.
How to lay natural stone

Natural stone, most often limestone, has many advantages over other types of decorative coatings: environmentally friendly material, low cost, high resistance to chemical or mechanical damage, the possibility of processing cutting tools, long service life.

In order to properly lay the surface with limestone, it is necessary not only to choose a stone with the lowest percentage of sand, mortar and other foreign inclusions, and consider the material from which made wall, facade or other surface to be decorated.

For laying stone on the surface of concrete preparation almost unnecessary. The only thing to do is to remove the dirt and grease stains. For dirt use the brush stains are removed with a solvent.

To wooden surfaces stone glued poorly due to high absorption and low adhesion. Wood surface must be treated with waterproofing material, and then it is necessary to install a grid of metal to provide reinforcement, allowing to lay the tiles without worrying that it will fall off.

The metal surface is also not the best for fixing stone. It must be primed, to close the metal mesh and further plaster cement-sand mixture in a thin layer.

Since natural stone is always different in size, before laying it is necessary to lay on the floor, forming the most harmonious and beautiful pattern, repeating natural pattern. If you plan to lay a stone facade, you need to remember that this should be done only in warm weather because in the cold the glue will not freeze, and freeze: the stone stays on the wall, but in thaw, there is a risk that it will partly come unstuck.

As glue it is possible to use bitumen mastic or a mixture based on sand, plasticizers and cement. Importantly, the mixture does not impinge on the front of the stone, because it is badly washed from the surface and spoils the appearance of the coating.

To lay the stone you need from the bottom up, causing the solution and on the surface and the stone, and then gently push the stone into the solution. Joints between stones should be as the same width, only in this case, the decorated surface will look beautiful, neat and harmonious. After completion of the work, the joints are filled with a special water-resistant mortar. If the stone is placed back to back, the seams are usually not decorated, as the stones are joined together as tightly as possible.

Advice 2 : What are the solutions used for masonry stone

The solutions which are used for masonry, tie some stones into a monolith. Filling the space between the stones, they prevent the penetration in masonry of water and air, protect it from blowing and to increase the frost resistance of the structure.
What are the solutions used for masonry stone
Mortars for masonry are divided into the heavy (cold) and light (warm). First created on the basis of silica or natural sand from dense rocks. The second is prepared using pumice, scoria or tuff sand, fuel, or blast-furnace granulated slag and ash.
In all types of solutions, the grain size of sand should not exceed 2.5 mm. When creating solutions for masonry stone are widely used various organic and plasticizer. As the organic additives used mylonaft and sulfide liquor, the inorganic — clay and lime.
The solutions also klassificeret on the type of binder, cement, lime, complex, or mixed. Cement mortars used for the construction of structures located below the ground surface, walls and heavily loaded columns, and in reinforced masonry.
Minimum cement consumption one cubic meter of sand shall be not less than 75 kg for the underground parts of buildings and above-ground parts is not less than 125 kg of Portland slag cement and Portland cement is used only in the solutions for reinforced masonry for the critical structures, for works in soils saturated with water, as well as for winter masonry by freezing.
At low load in dry places used lime mortars. They have great flexibility and mobility, while ensuring the highest productivity.
Mixed or complex solutions, referred to as cement-clay and cement-limy structures, they are also used for construction of most building structures. Due to the presence of one of the binders initial setting time is extended in time, which makes the walls more comfortable, but greatly reduces the strength of the solution.
The degree of mobility of the solution is determined when immersed in a standard cone with a mass of 0.3 kg. the Ease of masonry depends on the degree of mobility of the solution and its ability to retain moisture, thanks to which the solution does not separate. This occurs during the rapid separation of water and precipitation of sand.
Water-holding capacity of the solution is very important when laying stone on a porous base, as well as during transport of the solution at large distances. As a rule, increase it by introducing finely dispersed mineral substances (clay and lime) or organic surface-active additives.
Mortars for masonry shall be not only durable, but also plastic. Such a composition easily fills all irregularities and uniformly bonded to the surface. In addition, the solution improves the productivity of bricklayers and improves the quality of masonry.
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