Instruction

1

Find the net profit of the company for the period under review. For example, it is equal to 900 thousand rubles. All necessary data can be obtained in the accounting Department or look in the financial statements of the organization.

2

Request data on the volume of sales of the company. You should get the figure for the same time period, otherwise the ratio calculation will have no practical meaning. For example, the volume of sales equal to 156 million rubles. Be sure to Express this figure in the same units as the figure obtained at the 1st step. The result is 156000 thousand rubles.

3

Calculate the return on sales. To do this, divide net profit by sales. Divide 900 thousand rubles to 156,000 thousand rubles received 0,005769. This is the profitability of the company during the period under review.

4

Express the return on sales in percent. To do this, multiply the resulting ratio by 100%. 0,005769 multiply by 100, we obtain of 0.58%.

Note

Similarly, it is possible to calculate coefficients of liquidity, capitalization, activity and profitability of any organization. Keep in mind that in practice specialists use tens and hundreds of different financial ratios. Do not let knock yourself confused, mostly all of them are derived from the coefficients of the above categories are calculated similarly.

Useful advice

Practice to calculate margins for any other data from the report on profits and losses of the enterprise. You can also be based on data from the balance sheet of the company.

# Advice 2: How to calculate and plot

**Diagram**- flowchart of the solution of the problem of the strength of materials when calculating the strength characteristics and loads on the material. It reflects the dependence of the bending moments of the length of the loaded area of any element. It can be a beam or truss, the other bearing structure.

Instruction

1

When calculating the strength of material is considered that there are four kinds of internal stresses that arise in elements loaded by external forces. This torque, transverse force, longitudinal force and bending moment.

2

Usually build the plot twisting and bending moments, as a most dangerous to the strength characteristics of structures. If necessary, study the distribution of longitudinal and lateral forces on the loaded length of the element, counting and build also plot the longitudinal Q and transversal forces N.

3

Building plot in arbitrary scale and sign, indicating dimensions. Proportion to comply with is necessary. The signs "+" and " - " in a circle indicates a sign of plot on the plot forces.

4

To build a plot, start with the solution of problems in theoretical mechanics and strength of materials. Select the nature of item and the type of its relationships (the ways of fixation in space). In this case, consider the following basic rules: - a system at rest is in equilibrium; the sum of the forces acting on a balanced system equal to 0, as the sum of the moments generated by these forces; the moment the product of force on the shoulder perpendicular to the distance from the point of application of force to the point of time;- the upward force is positive, downward is negative;- if the system when moment seek to turn clockwise moment is positive if vs is negative.

5

Specify the exact true direction of the reactions when the elements under consideration. To do this, define the dependence of the force and moment from the argument x, and the direction of travel (right to left or Vice versa).

6

Take a pencil, a ruler, paper. Draw a scale diagram of the considered element (rod) and its compounds (props).

7

In accordance with the calculations indicate the point of application and direction of forces, their size. Specify a point of time, its direction.

8

Divide the element into sections (section), specify them cross force, get to the plot. Define in cross-sections bending moments. Construct bending moment diagrams.

# Advice 3: How to calculate the period of supercompensation

The supercompensation – the main purpose of virtually any trip to the gym. This is the period of time for which the muscles of athletes recover after a workout and become stronger, fitter and bigger than they were before.

## The supercompensation: what is it?

After sports training your muscles gradually start to recover. This long process can be divided into several stages. During the first stage, the muscles go back to potrenirovatsja level. The next stage is the growth of muscles, their efficiency increases. The period for which the muscles do not just rest after training, but become stronger – and supercompensate. Reaching its peak, athletic performance starts to decline and gradually return to potrenirovatsja level.

The peak of supercompensation is the perfect time for the next trip to the gym. If you exercise muscles that have not had time to fully recover, the training effect will be negligible, if not negative: weary muscles threatened overtraining. The effectiveness of training to be reduced and in that case, if you miss the right moment: at the peak of supercompensation muscle performance may increase by 10-20%, allowing the athlete to increase the load.

This is an important point because only a constant increase in load can provide a stable growth performance. Overhead, the athlete will only be able to maintain the level already achieved.

## How to determine the perfect time to workout?

Unfortunately, to accurately determine the period of supercompensation is impossible. This process is individual and depends on many factors: the metabolism of an athlete, initial level of fitness, intensity, power, overall condition of the body. In addition, different functions and muscle groups are recovering in different ways and the period of supercompensation different.

You must consider this caveat: if the workout was not intense and my muscles got a sufficient load, the supercompensation will not, the performance will not increase. In the case of excessive load occurs overtraining, and as a result, stopping the development of athletic performance, if not regress.

## Cyclic training is the solution to the problem of supercompensation

The solution to the problem of supercompensation – competent training program, tailored to the individual characteristics of the athlete. One of the most important principles of this program – cyclic alternation of load intensity, which is produced by different muscle groups.

The essence of calironia the training is to split the sports program on some periods which are repeated with different degrees of intensity: easy, medium, and high. Perfect training split, when the program is divided into several days, during which the athlete is working on a separate muscle group.

It should also be noted that different parameters (such as strength, endurance, muscle volume, etc.) the period of supercompensation is different and requires loads of varying intensity. Therefore, it is a split workout with cyclic change of load provides a uniform development of all training parameters.