Carefully read the conditions of the problem. Determine which section of accounting include the information specified in the conditions of the problem, i.e. identify the subject of the audit (accounting of goods, finished products, monetary funds, etc.). Find violations that were made in the reflection of primary documents in the accounts of the organization. The solution consists of the design output or conclusion on the situation.
Complete solution of the problem in the following way. In the first paragraph of the conclusion, briefly describe the identified violation. In the second paragraph, write how and when it was necessary to reflect the primary documents and transactions in the account during this situation. Enter the correct accounting entries using the chart of accounts of accounting and correspondence.
Describe in the third paragraph the implications of how did not an accurate reflection journal entry (or lack thereof) on the result of financial and economic activities of the organization, that is, decreased or increased the cost of sales changed as a consequence, the amount of income tax. Check correctness of calculation of other taxes in these violations and write a conclusion on this item. If necessary, calculate the amount of missing taxes.
Consider the example of solving the problem for audit by the algorithm. For example, according to its terms when checking the primary documents of the organization and comparison of the dates of business transactions, the document date of the accounting auditor established that the December 25 of the audit period were sales of a chest freezer cost 38 000 RUB Initial cost of the lar – 40 000 RUB, wear – 10 000 RUB payments to buyer has not been made. Shipments have not been reflected in the accounts as of the last reporting date.
Apply the solution to sadachiyo:1. Asset sale not reflected in the accounts of accounting, do not include the amount of income on selling it: (38 000 - (40 000 - 10 000) = 8 000 RUB that would entail neonataleia income tax.2. Transactions not reflected on the implementation of a fixed asset:Debit 62, the Credit 91.1 - 38 000 Debit 01.2, 01.1 Loan - 40 000Дебет 02, Loan 01.2 - 10 000Дебет 91.2, Credit 01.2 - 30 000Дебет 91.9, Loan 99 - 8 0003. Depreciation for the year assessed in greater amount. Incorrectly calculated property tax (in the amount of sold asset). These two operations increase the cost of production and thereby reduce the profit tax. In addition, not assessed VAT implementation. All this affects the reliability of the financial (accounting) statements."Using this algorithm, we can solve any problem in the audit.
Advice 2: How to solve problems in accounting
The study of accounting generally involves both theoretical and practical classes. The solution of problems on accounting allows a deeper understanding of this discipline and to acquire the skills that will be useful in further professional activities.
You will need
- - the condition of the problem;
- - paper and pen;
- the chart of accounts.
Learn theoretical information that may be useful to you in solving problems in accounting. Understand the basic principles and concepts, understand what constitutes assets and liabilities, double entry system, what types of transactions exist and how they differ from each other. Refer to the main forms of financial statements, primarily the balance sheet.
Learn to use the "chart of accounts". Often novice accountants and students studying this specialty, there are difficulties in the preparation of accounting entries, so it is important to understand the difference between synthetic and analytical account, learn how to determine the offsetting accounts.
After receiving the problem statement, read it carefully and think of a solution. If you are required to make journal entries that draw the so-called "planes" for each account involved in business transactions. This way of tackling the task of accounting no wonder so popular: it clearly demonstrates the principle of double entry and allows you to understand enters or leaves the property, or stop experiencing obligations.
If to solve the task it is necessary to make some form of financial statements, review the order and rules of its filling. This information can be found in the relevant provisions and orders of the Ministry of Finance (for example, PBU 4/99 "Accounting statements of organizations") and in textbooks on accounting.
In case of any difficulty sort similar problems in the textbook, or use collections of type "10000 accounting entries". A good tool for studying accounting may be the so-called end-to-end task, i.e. the examples of accounting in the conventional organization. Options through the problems with solutions you can find on the Internet, and also tutorials on accounting or work in the program "1C: Accounting".
Regularly visit specialized portals or forums for accountants on the Internet, e.g., http://www.buhonline.ru, http://www.klerk.ru. There you will find a lot of useful information that will help you in solving tasks and will be able to consult with experienced accountants.