You will need
- — the measurements of the metal specified in the project or in the drawing of the intended construction;
- — mates.
- — load;
- — special software.
For the calculation of steel data is used certain combinations of loads. The latter can be dynamic and static.
Static load in a certain position and are always directed vertically, because they are called gravitational.
Dynamic loads can occur, disappear, change and power applications. These include wind, precipitation, temperature fluctuations.
To calculate the strength of metal, take the value of the maximum current for the construction of force, which is determined in accordance with the technical specifications, and multiply by the safety factor. If there are no vibratory loads, it is enough to calculate.
Conduct calculation by limit state method. The first limit state is the load bearing capacity of steel structures. Upon reaching this condition, the structure suffers a change of its shape or loses its ability to resist external influences.
The condition for the first limit state is: N≤f, where N is the stress in the structural element, and f the ultimate force that determines the resistance of the element. In the second limit position appear unacceptable oscillations or deformation. The condition: δ ≤ δпр, where δ is the deformation of the structure due to external influences, and δпр — limit deformation.
The third limit state is characterized by the appearance of cracks, in which the further operation of the construction of the impossible. For this limit state will use the formula: e ≤ EBR, where e is the crack opening.
Use the programs to calculate the structures, such as the "Frame" (from the collection SCAD), MSC.Software, Nastran, Lira, ANSYS and other software for engineering calculations.
Basic requirements of the rules of calculation are the values of deformations, stresses and sizes of cracks, the possibility of which is taken into account when calculating the strength of structures under the influence of external factors, does not exceed the limit values. These values are determined by normative documents such as "Building regulations", as well as the technical specifications of the design.
Not to be mistaken in the calculations and consider all possible cases, it is advisable to consult an expert designer, which based on your data efficiently calculate the metal.