You will need

- - A floor plan;
- roulette;
- calculator.

Instruction

1

Measure the area where you want to install lighting.

2

Number of lamps per 1 sqm of the area depends in the first place, from the power lamp. If the bulbs in the lamps have a capacity of about 35 watts, you need to install one lamp per 1.5 sq. m. There is a rule that distributes the lamps: each 1 sq. m. area shall be illuminated 20 watts.

3

If spotlights are to be installed as a Supplement to the main lighting, such as chandelier, it is possible to reduce their number or place in a specific zone for illumination.

4

The minimum distance between the point lights should be about 30 cm And the angle from wall to the lamp is about 20 cm.

Note

In stores you can find numerous types of spotlights. They differ in the direction of the flow of light and the type of dispersion. There are spotlights, equipped with a rotating mechanism, thanks to which you can easily adjust the light direction. You can also find lamps with lamp placed outside. They usually have an external canopy that allows to increase the angle of light leakage. These lamps will need less, as they are able to cover a more extensive area of premises.

Useful advice

Position the fixtures using various options. The most popular way is located in two or more rows of the perimeter of the ceiling. You can position lights in the shape of a circle.

When covering a square room take the advice of designers and position spotlights in the corners of an isosceles Pentagon.

For uniform illumination of the room use the chess position.

When covering a square room take the advice of designers and position spotlights in the corners of an isosceles Pentagon.

For uniform illumination of the room use the chess position.

# Advice 2: How to change a light bulb in a spot lamp

Anything eternal does not happen. So light bulbs have a service life and then burn out. And if the owner, and often the hostess, a good idea of how to change

**a light bulb**in a conventional ceiling chandelier, if necessary, replace the bulb in a spot**lamp**often there is some confusion: what we need to do this otherwise.You will need

- Light bulb the same shape and the same size of the cap that burned out.

Instruction

1

Disconnect the electricity to the room where the lamp needs replacing with a light bulb - this is a prerequisite by performing that, you will protect yourself from possible injuries or electric shock. Off is possible to produce by turning off the switch of automatic circuit breaker located in the switchboard. If you don't know exactly which of these switches is responsible for a power outage in your desired room, you can determine it by experiment, enabling and disabling them one by one, extinguished the light and become involved in a particular area, you will identify the desired toggle switch.

2

Unscrew the blown

**light bulb**of the halogen lamp by moving counterclockwise. Try to do it gently, without damaging the bulb. Otherwise you can get hurt on the surface.3

Keep the whole

**bulb**that you're going to screw in return blown. If you do not know in advance which parameters of the new light bulb you need, after unscrewing a light bulb, you should take her for example, if you purchase new bulbs at the store.4

The whole twist the new

**bulb**in the lamp by moving clockwise. Do this carefully, without twisting**the bulb**too tight at the base.5

Enable you have turned off your electricity in the room, which was to replace

**a light bulb**, returning to the place the switch of automatic circuit breaker. Close the switchboard.6

Try whether you have made a replacement light bulb spot

**lamp**, moving the lever switch in position "on". When enabled should not be located directly under the spot lamp, as in the case of possible manufacturing defects (not completely exclude this possibility) you screwed the bulb, it may shatter into shards and injure you.Note

Before replacing the bulb, allow it to cool down.

Useful advice

If you are hesitant to take such action independently, it is better to invite a professional electrician, who in virtue of their profession know how to replace the bulbs.

# Advice 3: How to fix spotlight

A popular spot

**lamps**knows no boundaries. They are used almost everywhere: in the kitchen, in the bathroom, in the office, at trade shows and even in art galleries. To mount spotlights is easy. This stage start after made plaster ceiling and wiring.You will need

- - the range;
- pencil;
- - an electric drill;
- core;
- - screwdriver;
- knife;
- - pliers;
- lamp.

Instruction

1

Before embarking on the installation of spotlights for suspended plasterboard ceiling, you need to make for him a corresponding hole. In order not to break the symmetry and to arrange the right lighting, it is recommended to make a layout. It will allow you to determine the right number of spotlights and their positions.

2

Armed with a construction rule or a long spirit level, get down to business: a pencil, draw diagonal lines to locate the center of the ceiling and mark the future location of spotlights.

3

Attach the metal drill "crown" for drywall or wood, then drill the required number of holes (they have already scheduled on the ceiling). The diameter of the metal "crown" must match the diameter of the inner part of the spotlights, thanks to the outer part of the lamp will completely cover the drilled hole.

4

Proceed to connecting the lamps. First of all, bare wire ends, using pliers or a sharp knife. Then twist stranded wire: this will give it rigidity.

5

Then use a screwdriver to Unscrew the clamping screws of the terminals. After this connect the wires to the terminals for good contact firmly with the screws.

6

Firmly press the spring mounting of the lamp to its housing. Not letting go of attachment, carefully slide the "tochechki" in the ceiling hole up to the stop: springs will open, and the lamp is securely fixed. If necessary, tweak by hand the front part of the lamp.

7

Screw the bulb into the lamp and verify that it works.

Note

Before starting work, unplug the mains!

Useful advice

A marking pencil is recommended before the start of the painting works.

# Advice 4: How to calculate the lamp power

For proper illumination of rooms, corridors or free-standing object, such as aquarium, you need to determine the appropriate type of lamp: number, location and

**capacity of the**installed lamps. There are a few rules, doing that, just to perform this task.You will need

- roulette, sheet of paper, pen, calculator

Instruction

1

For the General calculation of the lamps use the following formula: P=pS/N, p –power, the specific lighting, measured in Watts per square meter (the average is 20 Watts per square meter), S is the area of the premises, for which this lamp is calculated in square meters and N is the number of lamps.

2

Example: calculate the room measure the length and width of the room. The results obtained (for example, 3.3 meters long and 4.5 meters wide) between multiply and get the area of this room (3,3 × 4,4 = 14,85 square meters). This figure multiply by 20 and divide by the expected number of bulbs in lamps. For example, take the 3 lamps on 2

**lamps**in each. In this case, 14,85 multiply by 20 and divide by 6 (3×2=6). Get the result, which means that in this case, you have 6 lamps at 49.5 Watts.3

Can vary the wattage in each lamp, dividing the room into several zones with different lighting. The total power of all lamps in the room should not be less than 297 Watts.

4

In some cases it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the premises, which make the calculation of the total power of the installed lamps. In this case, do the calculation, substituting the value of the coefficient p in the table below:property Type|incandescent Lamp|Halogen lamp|fluorescent svyatetsky room..............30-85....................70-85....................15-22

Living room.....................15-35....................25-35....................7-10

Bedroom......................10-25....................15-17....................4-7

Corridor......................10-20....................10-13....................3-5

Kitchen........................15-40....................30-37....................6-10

Bathroom...............15-30....................22-27....................6-9

Storage room, garage..............12-15....................11-14....................3-5Здесь, to calculate, for example, lighting in the kitchen (area 3 meters square) with the use of fluorescent lamps, take the coefficient of p (average 9) from table, multiply by the kitchen area and if you will be trehrozhkovye lamp, divide by three: 9×3/3 = 9 Watts in each of the three installed in the lamp bulb.

Living room.....................15-35....................25-35....................7-10

Bedroom......................10-25....................15-17....................4-7

Corridor......................10-20....................10-13....................3-5

Kitchen........................15-40....................30-37....................6-10

Bathroom...............15-30....................22-27....................6-9

Storage room, garage..............12-15....................11-14....................3-5Здесь, to calculate, for example, lighting in the kitchen (area 3 meters square) with the use of fluorescent lamps, take the coefficient of p (average 9) from table, multiply by the kitchen area and if you will be trehrozhkovye lamp, divide by three: 9×3/3 = 9 Watts in each of the three installed in the lamp bulb.

# Advice 5: How to calculate the amount of siding for wall cladding

In order to properly calculate the amount of siding for the cladding of walls, first you need to find out what criteria needs to be the choice of material. Only then is it possible to start the calculation.

Due to the ease of operation and affordable price, the lining is one of the most popular finishing materials. In addition, it is quite versatile, its applications are endless: clapboard sheathe as baths and balconies.

Calculate how much you will need siding for wall cladding, is quite simple. Knowing the area is easy to calculate how many slats you'll need. However, there is one caveat: the lining is sold in cubic yards, not in pieces or linear metres. Therefore, it is necessary to do some calculations.

To more precisely calculate how many slats you'll need, you need to choose a good sturdy strap. Should pay attention to the direction of the cut, it must coincide with the direction of growth of the tree. You also need to pay attention to the location of the annual rings. They must go beyond boards, this parameter directly affects the strength.

When choosing finishing material, every person, first of all, think about aesthetic appearance. To leather lining the surface looked decent, you need to choose straps with smooth edges, taking into account the humidity of wood, which must not exceed 17%. Otherwise, the Board can be fragile and break during processing. You should also pay attention to the valid for a given tree species the number of knots.

The correct lining will allow you not only to enjoy the beautiful decoration, but also to calculate, what quantity of material you need.

In order to calculate the amount of lining required, you need to calculate the area, multiply this perimeter by the height and given the door and window openings. Next you need to calculate the area of one rack, by multiplying its length by the height, and knowing the thickness, it is possible to obtain the volume of one plank. To obtain the necessary number of strips, you need the area of the space divided by the area of one plank. And knowing the volume of one of the boards and number of boards, it is easy to calculate how many cubic metres of lining will be needed for decoration.

You should choose the lining, strap length which is a multiple of the height of the room, it will minimize waste. But in any case, the volume should be multiplied by 0.15, because no matter how you try to reduce waste, they will still be. 10-15% of the total volume is the norm, calculated for ideal performance.

Calculate how much you will need siding for wall cladding, is quite simple. Knowing the area is easy to calculate how many slats you'll need. However, there is one caveat: the lining is sold in cubic yards, not in pieces or linear metres. Therefore, it is necessary to do some calculations.

## Selection of quality material

To more precisely calculate how many slats you'll need, you need to choose a good sturdy strap. Should pay attention to the direction of the cut, it must coincide with the direction of growth of the tree. You also need to pay attention to the location of the annual rings. They must go beyond boards, this parameter directly affects the strength.

When choosing finishing material, every person, first of all, think about aesthetic appearance. To leather lining the surface looked decent, you need to choose straps with smooth edges, taking into account the humidity of wood, which must not exceed 17%. Otherwise, the Board can be fragile and break during processing. You should also pay attention to the valid for a given tree species the number of knots.

The correct lining will allow you not only to enjoy the beautiful decoration, but also to calculate, what quantity of material you need.

## Calculate the amount of lining

In order to calculate the amount of lining required, you need to calculate the area, multiply this perimeter by the height and given the door and window openings. Next you need to calculate the area of one rack, by multiplying its length by the height, and knowing the thickness, it is possible to obtain the volume of one plank. To obtain the necessary number of strips, you need the area of the space divided by the area of one plank. And knowing the volume of one of the boards and number of boards, it is easy to calculate how many cubic metres of lining will be needed for decoration.

You should choose the lining, strap length which is a multiple of the height of the room, it will minimize waste. But in any case, the volume should be multiplied by 0.15, because no matter how you try to reduce waste, they will still be. 10-15% of the total volume is the norm, calculated for ideal performance.