Advice 1: Than impregnated railway sleepers

In the Russian Federation on the basis of GOST 78-2004, before you lay the sleepers on the railway, they are impregnated with a special compound. The treatment process has been around for many years and occurs under strict control. After all, what impregnated sleepers, depends on their service life and reliability.
Than impregnated railway sleepers
Instruction
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Currently, there are several types of mixtures, which is impregnated sleepers. The most common and familiar type of protective material is creosote. It is a penetrating oil that is produced in the coking process for the recycling of resin, and has a very particular and pungent aroma. Creosote safe for humans and animals, is inexpensive, does not react with metal and wooden structures that are in contact with treated sleepers. Of the negative aspects of the mix can be noted the high toxicity, Flammability, and odor.
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Technology of applying protective coating on the sleepers is very complex and consists of several stages. By the way, sleepers, supporting columns, bridge beams, all impregnated with the same technology in special autoclaves. The first stage of impregnation, a vacuum that will allow you to save the wood from excess moisture. Then there is a supply of antiseptic. This happens under pressure, this creates a penetrating layer of the order of 2-5 mm. Its value will saveset from wood. Then again, a vacuum is created to remove excess creosote. After that there quality check of the sleepers.
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Now many companies are trying to find new solutions for the impregnation of sleepers. In place of the creosote comes antiseptic "Elemset", showing excellent quality. It does not provide the sleepers great durability and leaves no after using the excess dirt. A revolution in the manufacture of protective equipment for sleepers produced antiseptic "zhtk". It surpasses their coal counterparts not only in effectiveness, but also safety. His production deals with the company "LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez", which holds the patent and supplies antiseptic on explosively Russia.
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It is worth noting that the new antiseptic oil origin also has a hazard class, but the probability of cancer when it is many times lower in comparison with coal-tar product. The main characteristics of the mixture can include no odor, no stickiness. It does not form clots and precipitation either on the sleepers or on the equipment, and aesthetic properties "zhtk" better than creosote. Therefore, we can summarize that the use of this antiseptic in the quality of the material for processing sleepers – a significant contribution to improving the environment and working conditions at the factories involved in the impregnation of sleepers.

Advice 2 : What materials make railway sleepers

For most has become customary that the sleepers are made of wood, impregnated with special compounds. However, wood is gradually replaced by other materials, for the production of which used innovative technology.
What materials make railway sleepers

Wooden sleepers



Used for the manufacture of wood spruce, pine, maple, oak, cedar and even eucalyptus. Sleepers can be of three types. The most basic one involves the production of material, cropped only top and bottom. Improved – machining from 3 sides (Palabrescia products). The most qualitative considered sleepers, treated with 4 sides. To prevent the process of decay uses different impregnations on the basis of creosote is the strongest antiseptic. Before processing future sleepers well dried, is placed in a vacuum and serves antiseptic. Drying will also take place in a vacuum created by a special autoclave. Sleepers of wood easy to produce, have small weight and small price.

Concrete



Sleepers made of this material represent a beam with variable cross section, "equipped with special pads under the rails. For the production of such products used heavy concrete with a high compressive strength (C40) and good frost resistance (F200). In addition, future sleepers are subjected to pre-tension. For the production of concrete sleepers used forms that transmit tensile forces. After poured concrete hardens, tension from the rebar is removed, the form is destroyed. The resulting product has a high resistance to stress when the train moves, and intense reinforcement prevents the split of the concrete at point of impact.

Reinforced concrete sleepers are more expensive to produce compared to wood, higher weight (260 kg), but have a higher performance and a longer (almost unlimited service life. Another important advantage of reinforced-concrete sleepers – the possibility of reuse.

Plastic



Yet this material for the manufacture of sleepers is rarely used, but gradually the production is growing. The leader here is the United States, producing up to 15 million ties per year (the approximate cost 500 million dollars). For the production of plastic sleepers using composite materials that have proven themselves in the construction of bridges (panelling). This composite composition is widely used for the manufacture of marine piles, piers.

Engaged in the production, several companies managed to negotiate standards on sleepers and to test them. The weight of the products is 200-280 pounds (here the role played by production technology and the length of products).
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