In terms of circulation coins of Russia is no exception and, although not so long ago withered away due to the meager cost of the famous penny metallic money in Russia exist, however, in other denominations.
Coin tradition in the world are not much different. The only thing that changes is the design of coins and their composition, rather, the alloy from which they are made.
A long tradition worldwide of steel alloys based on copper. Nothing surprising in this, since initially after the transition from minting money out of precious metals in coin and have to reign it copper. As a bargaining chip copper money existed during the times of ancient Rome.
What made the coins
Modern Russian coins are made of any single metal or alloy. A lot depends on the year of issue and denomination.
Coins of one penny and five cents were made of steel with the subsequent covering Melchior, representing a so-called clad coins.
The bulk of the coins of ten and fifty cents issued before 2009, was made of a special copper-zinc alloy. But since 2006, these coins began to produce steel clad with red brass alloy, created on the basis of copper with zinc and other elements.
Coins, higher in one and two rubles were originally made from Nickel silver. This lasted until 2009, but later they began to be minted in steel and covered with Nickel.
Five-ruble coins prior to 2009 were minted from copper with a Nickel silver coating. Only since 2009, began production of steel five-ruble coins with a coating of Nickel alloy.
Ten ruble coins in 2009 minted from steel with a brass coating.
But the Russian coin is not always gravitated to the gland. There was a period when mass was minted quite complex in production, but spectacular bi-metal coin. So, in 1991, that was minted ten-ruble coin, in which the inner part was made of a copper-zinc alloy, and outer Nickel silver.
After the termination of the minting of this coin in 1992 was produced in mass-circulation bi-metallic coin of fifty and one hundred rubles.
Currently, in addition to the mass of coins are minted periodically collectible, gift, anniversary coins. For them to use gold, silver, the same bimetal with the only difference that the modern commemorative coins have a ring from a copper-zinc alloy and a core of Nickel silver.
Advice 2 : Alloys of some metals consist of Russian coins
The issue of quality criteria of banknotes, of course, is not as relevant as, say, their quantitative expression. However, it will be interesting to understand which metals and alloys used for the production of small change coins throughout their use in Russia.
For centuries the metals for coins were the most different. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century, this used three main metal – first, of course, gold, silver, and copper. Beginning in 1828, they joined the ranks of platinum. However, platinum coins lasted very long. Already in 1845, they ceased to produce, and which was withdrawn from circulation.
Until 1926, no changes in the release of small change occurred. In the same year replaced the copper coin in aluminium bronze. Silver money was issued until 1931, and then they were replaced by cupro-Nickel. From this we can say, began a new era of production of coins in which the precious metals are fully replaced alloys from non-precious metals.
Coins of bronze and brass
The alloy is called aluminum bronze (95% copper and 5% aluminum) was used for the minting of coins in denominations of one, two,three, five cents for 26-57 years of the twentieth century. The main advantages of these coins is that they were harder than their copper predecessors.
Latunevoe coins were cast from copper alloy with zinc. They, too, were quite solid, but less resistant to mechanical than coins made of aluminum bronze. The brass alloy was used in the USSR since 58 up to 91 years of the last century for the production of coins are in denominations of one, two, three and five cents, and in 1991, brass cast desjatilopastnye coins. In 92-93 years of the late 20th century brass produced fifty - and hundred-ruble coins. Since 1997 there have been latunevoe coins of ten and fifty cents, and this alloy is now used in bimetallic ten-dollar coin.
Cupronickel and Nickel
Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, zinc, Nickel in the ratio 3:1:1. This alloy is very resistant both chemically and mechanically. In the period from 31 to 57 years of the last century it was used for the coinage of ten-, fifteen - and dvadtsatiletnej coins. Since 1997 – for coins of one and five cents for pyatirublevye.
Copper-Nickel alloy is less resistant than the Nickel silver. It was used for the production of coins of ten, fifteen, twenty and fifty cents and ruble coins in 58-91 years of the 19th century. In the period 92-93 years of this alloy coins were minted in ten, twenty, fifty and one hundred rubles. Since 1997, Russia has released from this alloy coins in denominations of one and two rubles.
Now release the steel-clad coins of ten and fifty cents (steel coated copper alloy), and have a ten-electroplating of brass coins of the same advantage one, two and five rubles, Nickel-plated.
Turning in the ninety-first in the USSR was first released bimetallic coin - desyatirublyovka. Unlike bimetallic coins that their outer part and the inner insert are made of different alloys.