"The decisions of the XXII Congress — in life!"
Formally, the decision to rename the rebuilt Stalingrad in Volgograd was taken of the Central Committee of the Communist party "at the request of the workers" 10 November 1961 — after just a week and a half after in Moscow, the XXII Congress of the Communist party. But really, it was quite logical for those times sequel unfolded in the main party forum of the anti-Stalin campaign. The apotheosis of which became a secret from the people and even most of the party takeaway from the Mausoleum the body of Stalin. And a hasty reburial of the former and not at all scary Secretary General at the Kremlin wall in the dead of night, without mandatory in such cases, speeches, colors, honor guard and salute.
It is curious that taking such a political decision to declare the necessity and importance of personally from the rostrum of the same Congress, did not dare none of the Soviet leaders. Including the head of state and party, Nikita Khrushchev. To "voice" guideline opinion requested modest party official, Secretary of the Leningrad regional Committee of party Ivan Spiridonov, in a short time safely dismissed.
One of the many decisions of the Central Committee, designed to finally eliminate the consequences of the so-called cult of personality, was the renaming of all localities, previously named after Stalin — Ukrainian Stalino (now Donetsk), the Tajikistan Stalinabad (Dushanbe), the Georgian-Ossetian of Staliniri (Tskhinvali), the German Stalinstadt (eisenhüttenstadt), Russian Novokuznetsk (Novokuznetsk), and the hero-city of Stalingrad. The latter has not received the historical name of the Empress, and, without further ADO, was named in honour of the flowing in this river — Volgograd. Perhaps it was due to the fact that the Empress could remind people about the not so old days of the monarchy.
The decision of the party leaders are not even influenced by the historical fact that from past to present passed and preserved to this day the name of the key in the great Patriotic war the battle of Stalingrad. And that the whole world calls the city where it occurred at the turn of 1942 and 1943, Stalingrad. With a focus not on the names of the late Generalissimo and commander in chief, and in real steel the courage and heroism of the defenders and the victorious fascists of Soviet soldiers.
Not in honor of the kings
The earliest historical mention of the city on the Volga, dated 2 July 1589. And his first name was Tsaritsyn. The views of historians on this issue, by the way, differ. Some of them believe that it descended from the Turkic phrase Sarah chin (translated as the Yellow island). Others indicate that close to the border of the Streltsy settlement of the SIXTEENTH century was a river Queen. But those and others converged in one: to the Queen, and indeed to the monarchy, the name of special relations has no. Consequently, Stalingrad in 1961 could return the former name.
Stalin was angry?
Historical documents of early Soviet era indicate that the initiator of the renaming of Tsaritsyn to Stalingrad, which occurred April 10, 1925, was not Stalin and not someone from the Communists a lower management level, and ordinary residents of the city, the impersonal public. They say, therefore the workers and intellectuals wanted to thank "dear Joseph Vissarionovich:" participation in the defense of Tsaritsyn during the Civil war. They say that Stalin, having learned about the initiative of citizens after the fact, though expressed on this occasion, even displeasure. The decision of the city Council it is, however, not abolished. And soon after the Soviet Union had tens of thousands of towns, streets, football teams and businesses named "leader".
Tsaritsyn or Stalingrad
After a few decades, after the name of Stalin with the Soviet maps had disappeared, it seemed forever, in the Russian society and in the Volgograd discussion broke out about whether or not to return the city its historical name? And if so, which of the previous two? Contributed in the ongoing process of debate and discussion even Russian presidents Boris Yeltsin with Vladimir Putin, at different times offered to citizens to Express their opinion on the matter in a referendum, and promising it is necessary to consider. And the first to do on the Mamaev Kurgan in Volgograd, the second — at a meeting with veterans in France.
And on the eve of the 70th anniversary of the battle of Stalingrad the country surprised the deputies of the local Duma. Taking into account, according to them, the numerous requests of veterans, they decided to six days a year to count exactly Volgograd Stalingrad. Such commemorations at the local legislative level are:
February 2 — the day of final victory in the battle of Stalingrad;
May 9 — Victory Day;
June 22 — the day of the great Patriotic war;
23 August — the Day of memory of victims of the bloodiest bombing of the city;
September 2 — the Day of the end of world war II;
November 19 — the day of the defeat of the Nazis at Stalingrad.