Advice 1: How to determine the fixed asset group

Fixed assets – is part of the property of the organization that is used over a long period of time (longer than 12 months) for manufacturing products, performing works or rendering services, as well as management purposes. A set of property, plant and equipment of similar technical characteristics, purpose and method of use is groups of fixed assets.
How to determine the fixed asset group
Instruction
1
When assignment of an object to a fixed asset, check whether it has the following features:
- the ability to bring the company economic benefits in the future;
the organization does not intend to resale the property;
- used for a long period of time (the duration of use exceeds 12 months or one operating cycle, lasting over 12 months). If property accepted for accounting corresponds to the above symptoms, then it should be reflected in the accounts of fixed assets.
2
You should know that all fixed assets are divided into groups, each of which correspond to distinctive features.

1. The building is an architectural and construction elements that create the necessary conditions for the implementation of production activities, storage of material values and also used for managerial and non-production needs.

2. Structures is engineering structures dedicated to technical service functions of the production process, but not associated with changes in the items of work (tunnels, drains, overpasses, etc.).

3. Transmission devices are devices through which energy is transferred in various types, as well as liquid and gaseous substances (heating network, gas network etc.).

4. Machinery and equipment, including:
power machines and equipment for generation and distribution of energy;
- working machinery and equipment directly involved in the production process;
measuring and control instruments and devices;
computing and electronic engineering.

5. Vehicle.

6. Tools – the means of labor involved in the production process for more than 1 year.

7. Production tools and household utensils, which are used to perform manufacturing operations and create safe conditions of work (workbenches, desks, etc.).

8. Household equipment, which provides conditions for the work and the function of service production (photocopiers, office furniture, etc.).

9. Land and perennial plantings.

10. Working and productive livestock and other fixed assets.
3
Note that in accounting for tax purposes and depreciation all fixed assets are divided into 10 depreciation groups depending on their useful lives. The useful life is the period during which a fixed asset is able to serve the purposes of the organization. The first group relates to depreciation assets with a useful life of 1-2 years, the second – 2-3 years, the third – 3-5 years, the fourth – 5-7 years, the fifth – 7-10 years. The sixth depreciation group includes assets useful life which is 10 to 15 years, the seventh – 15-20 years, the eighth – 20-25 years, the ninth – 25-30 years, a tenth more than 30 years.
Note
There are the following groups of fixed assets (including in accordance with PBU 6/01[2]) Each company has in its possession the fixed and current assets. A set of fixed production assets and circulating assets of the enterprises forms of their production tools.
Useful advice
For the purposes of accounting and tax accounting applies the Classification of fixed assets included in depreciation groups (Approved by RF Government Decree from January 01, 2002 No. 1 as amended by 10.12.2010 ). The cost previously taken into account the OS, the operation of which is continued in the current year, not subject to revision

Advice 2: How to determine depreciation group

All assets of the company are accepted for accounting, amortiziruemoe, ie wear out over time. Depending on term of useful use it is one of the depreciation groups. The useful life is the period during which the assets of the company are able to generate income.
How to determine depreciation group
Instruction
1
The period for which the property is capable of serving the purpose of the company, determined alone due to the Tax code, which reglamentary the assignment of property to a particular depreciation group, and taking into account the classification of fixed assets.
2
All depreciable property belongs to a particular depreciation group. All of these groups of ten. So to the first depreciation group belongs the short-lived assets with useful lives ranging from one year to two years. The second depreciation group includes assets, useful life of which 2-3 years, the third – 3-5 years, fourth – years 5-7, the fifth – 7-10 years, the sixth – 10-15 years, the seventh – 15-20 years, the eighth – 20-25 years, the ninth – 25-30 years, a tenth more than 30 years.
3
The useful life of the company can set after you enter a fixed asset into operation and after reconstruction, modernization, technical re-equipment, if there is an increase in this period. However, to increase the useful life is possible only within the limits established for the depreciation group.
4
For intangible assets the useful life is determined based on the period of validity of the patent or the license to use the object. If the useful life is measured in that way is not possible, then the norms of depreciation are set for a period of 10 years.
5
The list of assets that are included in each of the amortization groups is strictly regulated by law. For example, the fifth depreciation group consists of property: buildings, excluding residential, the site of production coatings, heat mains, photographic equipment etc.
6
If the asset does not belong to any of the depreciation groups, the term of useful use it is defined on the basis of the technical conditions or recommendations of the manufacturer.

Advice 3: How to complete the act of acceptance-transfer of fixed assets

For registration and accounting of proceeds or disposal of fixed assets in the enterprise is filled with the act of transfer and acceptance form number OS-1. From true populate it with data depends on the correct calculation of income tax and tax on property of the company. In this connection it is necessary to carefully approach the registration act.
How to complete the act of acceptance-transfer of fixed assets
You will need
  • - the form №OS-1.
Instruction
1
Complete the first page of the act of acceptance-transfer of the asset. Enter the first data about the organization-the deliverer-recipient: full name, INN and KPP code, address of registration. Note the basis for the preparation of the report, which can be represented by a contract of sale, invoice or account. Right on the first page has a table that fills only the transmitting side. If the OS is new, these fields are blank.
2
Make a certificate-confirmation, if the company transferring the asset uses a special tax regime and are not determined by the depreciation group. It specifies the group in which the number of receive OS.
3
Complete the information in section 1 of the act form number OS-1. It is populated only by the transferring party. Enter the actual operation period, which is calculated from the day of introducing the asset into operation the first owner. Check accrued during this period the amount of depreciation and note the General useful life. In the end egged and paid the residual contractual value of the asset.
4
Specify information about the object of the asset on the date of registration in accounting of the host country. This is filled in section 2 of the act. Specify the cost object and select a method of depreciation. Then fill in the brief individual characteristic of fixed asset object.
5
Record the findings of the Commission on acceptance-transfer of the asset to the third page of the act form number OS-1. Specify whether the object to specifications, and list the points that need improvement. Sign the document, signed by all members of the Commission and seal of the parties.
6
Put on the first page of act FA-1 a note that there are no differences between tax and accounting. Otherwise, you need to make an extra form with data for the tax. This is necessary because in the act include data only for accounting, which may not always be taken for calculating taxes.

Advice 4: How to determine the useful life of the car

Term of useful use is established by the organization when posting a fixed asset to calculate depreciation. It was determined using the classifier OKOF (all-Russian classifier of fixed assets) and the accounting classification of fixed assets included in depreciation groups.
How to determine the useful life of the car
You will need
  • - classifier OKOF;
  • - classification of fixed assets included in depreciation groups;
  • - passport of the vehicle.
Instruction
1
Select the classifier OKOF section "means of transport". Each position of the classifier includes a nine-digit decimal digital code, control number (CN) and the name of the asset. The control number is used for the protection codes of the classifier.
2
Define code in the qualifier for the purchased car. In some cases, to determine the code require additional information about the car: engine displacement (for passenger cars) and loading capacity (for trucks).
3
Open the classification of fixed assets included in depreciation groups. For the selected code OKOF find the depreciation group for your car. Install the useful life of the car within the limits established for the depreciation group.
4
If you purchased the car for any reason, you cannot assign the code for the classifier OKOF, determine the term of its useful use alone. The General rules of its determination set out in paragraph 20 of PBU 6/01 "Accounting of fixed assets". According to them, the organization may establish useful life based on technical documentation to the asset, and considering his condition.
5
Place your order for signature of the Director on the establishment of the useful life of the car. In order to be linked to lack of information on this asset in classifier OKOF. The same local normative act establishes the useful life, if the organization took a car to rent. In this case it will be equal to the period of the lease.
6
Install the useful life for a used car considering the time of its operation from the previous owner. To do this, subtract the useful life determined by the classification of fixed assets included in depreciation groups, the amount of time the actual operation of the vehicle from the previous owner.
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