Advice 1: What are the functions of the cytoplasm

Inside the cell contains the cytoplasm is the substance which occupies almost the entire cell volume and consists of hyaloplasm, organelles and inclusions. The main functions of the cytoplasm are the Union of all components of the cell in a single system, creating an environment for biochemical and physiological processes, as well as for the existence of organelles.
Cytoplasm - the part of the cell enclosed by a plasma membrane and the nucleus

Part of the cytoplasm




The chemical composition of the cytoplasm is water – 60-90%, organic and inorganic compounds. The cytoplasm is alkaline. The peculiarity of this substance is a permanent move or Cyclos that is essential to the life of the cell. In hyaloplasm, colorless, thick colloidal solution, the processes of metabolism. Thanks hyaloplasm is the relationship of nucleus and organelles.

Part hyaloplasm included endoplasmic reticulum or reticulum is an extensive system of tubes, channels and cavities that are delimited by a single membrane. Form beans are the mitochondria, particular power stations of the cell. Ribosomes – organelles that contain RNA. Another organoidom of the cytoplasm is the Golgi complex, named after the Italian biologist Golgi. Small organelles in the form of spheres are lysosomes. In plant cells contain plastids. Cavity with the cell SAP are called vacuoles. A lot of them in the cells of fruit plants. Outgrowths of the cytoplasm are many organelles movement – bundles of cilia, pseudopods.


The functions of the components of the cytoplasm




Reticulum provides the creation of a "frame" for the mechanical strength and give the cell shape, ie, has a formative function. On its walls are the enzymes and the enzyme-substrate complexes, which depend on the implementation of biochemical reactions. Through the channels of the reticulum is the transfer of chemical compounds, thus, it performs a transport function.

Mitochondria help to break down complex organic substances. When this occurs, the release of energy, which is necessary for the cell to maintain physiological processes.

Ribosomes are responsible for synthesis of protein molecules.

Complex or Golgi apparatus performs a secretory function in animal cells, regulates metabolism. In plants, the complex plays a Central role in the synthesis of polysaccharides that are found in the cell walls.

Lysosomes contain enzymes that provide the hydrolysis of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, fats. The main function they perform in the plant cells, creating the trachea conducting tissues.

Plastids can be of three types. The green chloroplasts or plastids involved in photosynthesis. The plant cell may contain up to 50 chloroplasts. Chromoplast contain pigments – anthocyanin, carotenoid. These plastids are responsible for the color of plants to attract animals, protection. Makoplasty provide the accumulation of nutrients, they can form chromoplast and chloroplasts.

Vacuoles is a place of accumulation of nutrients. They also provide formative cell function, creating internal pressure.

The inclusion of various solid and liquid States represent an spare substances and substances to be allocated.

Organelles of movement provide movement of cells in space. They represent outgrowths of the cytoplasm, are single-celled organisms, germ cells, phagocytes.

Advice 2: What is the function of vacuoles

Vacuoles-membrane vesicles in the cell cytoplasm filled with cell SAP. In plant cells, vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the volume. Animal cells have temporary vacuoles which occupy not more than 5% of their volume. Function of vacuoles depend on what cell they are in.
In the vacuoles of plants contain substances that give color to the leaves
The main function of vacuoles - the implementation of the relationship between the organelles, transport substances around the cage.

Function of vacuoles in plant cells



The vacuole is one of the most important organelles of the cell and performs many functions, among which: absorption of water, giving color to the cell, the output from the exchange of toxic substances, storage of nutrients. In addition, the vacuoles of some plants produce a milky juice and help to break down the “old” part of the cell.

The vacuole plays a major role in the absorption cell of water. By osmotic pressure, water enters the vacuole. As a result, the cell appears turgor pressure causing stretching of the cells during growth. The osmotic water absorption is important for maintaining overall water regime of plants as well as for the process of photosynthesis.

In vacuole there are pigments called anthocyanins. They determine the color of flowers, fruits, leaves, buds, roots of plants.

Vacuole removes from the exchange of toxic substances and some secondary metabolites. Waste are calcium oxalate crystals. They are deposited in the vacuoles as crystals of different shapes. The role of secondary metabolites is not fully understood. Possible alkaloids as secondary metabolism product, like tannins with their astringent taste, repel herbivores, which prevents the eating these plants.

Vacuoles store nutrients: mineral salts, sucrose, various organic acids (malic, acetic, citric, etc.), amino acids, proteins. If necessary, the cytoplasm of the cell may use these substances.

In the vacuoles of cells of certain plants produce a milky juice. So, the milky SAP of the Brazilian rubber trees contains enzymes and substances necessary for the synthesis of rubber.

Sometimes in the vacuoles contain hydrolytic enzymes, and then the vacuoles act like lysosomes. So, they are able to break down proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids, phytohormones, phytoncides, are involved in the breakdown of "old" parts of the cell.


Function of vacuoles in animal cells


Pulsating (contractile) vacuoles in freshwater protists serves for the osmotic regulation of cells. Since the concentration of substances in river water is lower than the concentration of substances in the cells of protozoa, contractile vacuoles absorb water, and Vice versa, the excess of water output by the cuts.

In the cells of some multicellular invertebrates (sponges, coelenterates, ciliated worms, some mollusks), capable of intracellular digestion and in the body of some single-celled organisms formed the digestive vacuoles containing digestive enzymes. Digestive vacuoles in higher animals are formed in special cells — phagocytes.
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