# Advice 1: What is mechanical determinism

Life is so diverse that it's impossible to predict. In ancient times, even the simplest natural phenomena seemed people something inexplicable, and most importantly - random. However, at some stage of development of science in the light of the concept of mechanical determinism.

## Determinism

The principle of determinism implies that every phenomenon must have a cause. And no matter what events going on. That is, determinism basically means a predetermination. Thus, any current state of any system is a result of its previous or initial States. The principle of determinism, denies all chance and probability. He says that, knowing the initial state, it is possible to accurately predetermine a definite future.

## Mechanical determinism

Mechanical determinism is, in fact, a subsection of the General concept of determinism as applied to mechanical phenomena in nature. Otherwise the mechanical determinism of Laplace's determinism is called in honor of its author. As an example, most clearly illustrating the principle of mechanical determinism, we can consider the movement of the body. Mechanical determinism says that, given the initial body position and initial velocity, you can always find the position of the body at any other time. Thus, mechanical determinism confirms the existence of the equations of motion of the body.

## Modern understanding of the mechanical determinism

This principle is firmly held positions, while scientists have not gone deep into the understanding of the laws of the microworld. When you go to the microcosm it becomes clear that to predict the motion of each particle of any macrobody is impossible, because the number of particles corresponding to the scale of macrocosm, in proportion ten to the twenty third degree. Moreover, the trajectory of particles in the microworld are changed many times, and the reasons for the change are virtually unpredictable.

This movement of particles is called Brownian. However, the crisis of mechanical determinism was short-lived, or rather, as long as James Clerk Maxwell, famous for his equations of electrodynamics, it is not proposed to describe the behavior of a large number of particles statistically. Since then, the views that was broken, whether mechanical determinism or not, divided. After all, what gave the introduction of statistical laws? On the one hand, it is now possible to predict the exact value of the probability, say, of finding the particle in a certain place. Here you can find some macroscopic parameters such as pressure, density, if we talk about gas and to keep in mind the distribution of Boltzmann. On the other hand, it is unclear whether the precise determination of the probability of accurate identification of the particles? The opinions on this are still different.

# Advice 2: What is the microcosm

All the world is composed of micro, small bricks that form the Universe itself. Planets, stars, water, earth, air, every person – everything is the visible result of an invisible effect. But it can be investigated and understood.
Micro -, macro -, mega – prefixes for these hides is sometimes huge, and sometimes quite tiny meaning. In this case, micro means very small. So tiny that cannot be seen by simple human eye.

## The magic of the microcosm

Strictly speaking, a microcosm – are molecules, atoms, nuclei of atoms, the diversity of elementary particles that you cannot see just. For invasion into this Kingdom requires special techniques and special thin instruments. And as soon as they were developed, it was found that all very difficult. Early in the theory of body mechanics was seen as a solid, which was denied after using the newest research methods. Scientists see molecules.

In turn, they consist of smaller particles-building blocks – atoms. Surprisingly, the number of molecules number of atoms can be very large. And the atoms also turned out to be extremely complex systems. They have electrons and nuclei consisting of different particles – protons and neutrons. The number of electrons in an atom usually equals the number of protons of the nucleus. But there is the possibility for the electrons to move from atom to atom, to secede and join the atom what is a chemical term, valence.

It also happens that elementary particles behave strangely. So a photon, being a unit of light may show properties of both waves and particles. Also there are particles that live only fractions of a second, when through the atmosphere are cosmic rays. Others actively emit energy in the form of radiation.

## Smaller than an atom

While the atom was considered indivisible, scientists have quietly studied the properties of molecules and create new materials based on them. Gradually, however, scientific knowledge has expanded and it turned out that there is something smaller than an atom.

Among the most famous of the smallest particles we can mention the PI-meson, muon, neutrino, gluon, and other interesting things. Some of them are well studied. People have learned to get them under laboratory conditions. And there are those particles, which yet is impossible to obtain. They are found in cosmic rays.

Of particular interest to scientists present research at particle accelerators. There are high-speed streams of elementary particles with high energy. At high speed, they collide and form other so-called subcastes. Currently known more than four hundred and discoveries continue.

So the microcosm is gradually revealing its secrets before inquiring mind of man.
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