Remember that the exchange rate difference is the difference between the ruble valuation of the property or liabilities denominated in a foreign currency at the date of performance or at the end of the reporting period, and a ruble estimation of the same property at the date of accepting for accounting. According to law, the allocation shall be cash in the accounts, in cash, payment documents and cash, securities other than shares and funds in the calculations.
As the date of the transaction you can think of:
- cash handling – posting date of the money in cash and issuing from it,
- operations on Bank accounts – the date of receipt of funds into the account and disposal account,
- income and expenses – the date of their recognition,
- expenditure on official business abroad – the date of approval of the advance report
- for investments in fixed assets – the date on which the recognized cost of their formation.
To reflect the exchange rate difference you need to use the account 91 "other incomes and costs". For tax purposes these amounts are non-operating income and expenses, therefore, the negative exchange rate difference reduces the taxable base for the profit tax, a positive – increases.
Calculate the exchange rate difference, you can make one of two methods: the "reverse"
or of the difference between the courses. In the calculation of the first method assumes that at any date the ruble is equal to the coverage rate of foreign currency by the Central Bank (CB) multiplied by the account balance in foreign currency. To do this, determine the account balance in a foreign currency, multiply by the exchange rate set by the Central Bank. You will find the value of foreign currency coverage. Then from the ruble of the coating to the current date, subtract the balance of the account (in rubles), i.e. the ruble coating on a previous date. The resulting amount will reflect the amount of exchange differences.
When calculating exchange rate differences the second method, use the formula:
CU = (CVM (AP) – SEC (DWP)) x(IV) where
The S. E. C. (AP) – the exchange rate of the Central Bank on the current date
SEC (DWP) – exchange rate of the Central Bank on the previous date,
(IV) – balance account in foreign currency.