Advice 1: How to calculate value added

Typically, the goal of every company is to make a profit. When the company purchases raw materials from suppliers and produces a product, he will sell it at the new price or given added value. Thus, added cost is the cost that you just created new wealth.
To calculate the value added very easy if you know the procedure
You will need
  • Calculator
  • Paper and pen,
  • Data on the costs of the company for the purchase of goods
  • Data on costs of production
Instruction
1
Determine the cost of purchased raw materials for production of new products or the cost of goods for resale. The rate is equal to the price at which the company buys goods or raw materials from suppliers. For example, a retail store purchased from suppliers of household appliances in the amount of 1.5 million rubles. This figure will be the priceu purchased product or raw material.
2
Determine the company's costs of production or the sale of goods. Such costs include staff salaries, electricity costs, transport costs, rent of premises, depreciation of equipment. For example, energy costs in retail shop $ 2 000. And the salary of employees is 400 thousand rubles. Then the sum of the total cost of the store is:
2 000 + 400 000 = 402 000
3
Add the sum of all costs to the cost of purchased raw materials or goods.
402 000 + 1 500 000 = 1 902 000 rubles.
4
Determine the size of the trading margin.In the above example, let the trading margin is 15%. It is charged on the cost of purchased appliances.
1 500 000 * 15% = 225 000 rubles.
5
Subtract the figure obtained in paragraph 3, the trading margin. The result is a value added. Added value = 1 902 000 – 225 000 = 1 677 000 rubles.In other words, any company will be interested in increasing added value, as this rate subsequently affect the final profit of the enterprise. In order to increase the added value necessary to reduce costs. As a rule, added to the cost subsequently charged a tax of 18%, payable in the budget according to the terms stipulated by the tax code.

Advice 2: What is the added value

Added value is part of the cost of the product, which was created in the organization. The difference between the cost of sold products and purchased goods and services.
What is the added value

The concept of value added



Value added (value added) is calculated as the difference between revenues and cost of goods and services purchased from outside organizations. The latter will include, in particular, the cost of raw materials and semi-finished products, repair, marketing, service, energy costs, etc.

Added is the value of the goods (or services), which increases the cost of the product during processing prior to sale it to the consumer. It includes payroll, rent, depreciation, rent, interest on loan, and profits.

For example, the company sold products in the amount of 100 thousand rubles For the production of these products it purchased raw materials on 30 thousand. and also the paid services of outside contractors on the 10 th Added value in this case is 60 thousand. (100 - 30 - 10) or 60% of the cost of the final product.

Western economists also share the notion of negative value added when additional processing not only adds value of the goods, but, on the contrary, reduces it. In a market economy the phenomenon of missing and applicable to the planned model.

The company added value is used in the following areas:

- salary payments (salary, bonus, compensation, contributions to extra-budgetary funds);

- paying taxes (except sales taxes and VAT);

- payment of Bank interest, dividends and other payments;

- investment in fixed asset acquisition, research and development and intangible assets;

- depreciation.

If, after all expenses incurred, there are any funds remaining, they are called retained value added (Value Added Retained). The latter can be negative when the added value is insufficient to cover all costs.


Gross value added



Distinguish between the concept of gross value added, which is calculated on the level of economic sectors. It is defined as the difference between output of goods and services and intermediate consumption. The summation of gross value added of all economic sectors constitutes in the amount of GDP production.

Intermediate consumption total cost consumption of goods and services to produce other goods and services. This, in particular, raw materials, purchased components and semi-finished products, fuel, electricity, etc.

Economic value added



Economic value added (EVA) is a method of evaluating the economic profit, which is used in the analysis of business efficiency from the standpoint of the owners. This company's profit from activities after tax and reduced investment in capital (at the expense of own and borrowed funds).

Formula EVA= profit - taxes invested in venture capital (total liabilities)*weighted average cost of capital.

Thus, the economic value added less profit (and therefore more losses) by the amount of payment for capital.

Advice 3: How to calculate the cost of electricity

To calculate the cost of electricity consumed per month, should the owner of a house or apartment, starting from the counter. For someone who makes this calculation regularly, this procedure any difficulties does not cause, but producing estimates for the first time, you may encounter these or other difficulties.
How to calculate the cost of electricity
You will need
  • receipt of payment for the supply of electricity;
  • -the current meter readings ("end index");
  • counter value at the time of payment of electricity last month ("initial index");
  • -the size of the tariff on your electricity bill this month.
Instruction
1
Locate the meter, which is not always in the open, and sometimes placed in a special vandal-proof Cabinet or box. If the door of the Cabinet is transparent, then open it and it is enough to see the dial of the counter and to rewrite all the numbers, not forgetting to separate the last one from the rest of the numbers with a comma. This number is the final figure, which will need to enter the receipt of payment supply your home with electricity.
2
Take the receipt for payment and find it in column "initial level," "ending index" and "flow". The final figure you found out, removing the current counts from the counter - enter its value in the appropriate box, rounding to the nearest integer (the first five numbers before the comma). Then complete the column "initial index" is the counter reading, which was recorded at the time of previous payment a month ago, it should be listed in the same receipt.
3
Subtract the final figure from the start, thereby obtaining the number consumed per month kilowatt, and enter the value in the column "flow". Now you know the tariff for your electricity bill this month - the rate is specified in the payment receipt. Multiply the flow rate (the amount of consumed kilowatt) rate (price per kilowatt) and get the amount in a given month you have to pay for electricity or for "light", as they say in the nation.
Note
Be careful opening the door, vandal-resistant Cabinet that is placed in the counter, and closer to the device next to it might be the fuse box is under high voltage!
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